The German aircraft industry excelled in producing efficient aircraft for high altitude reconnaissance duties and pioneered the use of aircraft specifically designed for the ground attack role.

AEG J.I

AEG J.I - 1917
AEG J.I

In 1916 Germany introduced the J-class of close support or ground-combat engagement aircraft. After the first units performed well in the battle of Verdun , the development of ground support aircraft received the highest priority. AEG designed the J.I to meet the need for armored aircraft to directly engage entrenched infantry units with concentrated machine gun fire and bombardment.

The AEG J.I was a biplane ground attack aircraft of 1917, an armored and more powerful version of the AEG C.IV reconnaissance aircraft. AEG J.I featured armor protection for the pilot and for the more powerful engine that was fitted to the heavier aircraft.

Two forward firing 0.312 in (7.92 mm) LMG 08/15 machine guns were fitted to the floor of the observer's cockpit pointing downward at a 45° angle for engaging ground targets. One 0.312 in (7.92 mm) Parabellum MG14 machine gun was provided in the typical rear-facing defensive position.

The J.Ia version featured aileron controls on the lower wings, in addition to the upper.

AEG J.I
  • Role: Ground attack aircraft
  • National Origin: German Empire
  • Manufacturer: Allgemeine Elektrizitäts-Gesellschaft
  • Introduced: 1917
  • Related Development: AEG C.IV - AEG J.II
  • Primary User: Luftstreitkräfte
  • Powerplant: 1 × Benz Bz.IV 6 cylinder water-cooled inline engine, 200 hp (149 kW)
  • Wingspan: 44 ft 2 in (13.46 m)
  • Wing Area: 358 ft² (33.2 m²)
  • Length: 23 ft 7½ in (7.20 m)
  • Height: 10 ft 11⅞ in (3.35 m)
  • Empty Weight: 3,201 lb (1,455 kg)
  • Loaded Weight: 3,828 lb (1,740 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 82 kn, 93 mph (150 km/h)
  • Range: 203 nm, 234 mi (375 km)
  • Service Ceiling: 14,760 ft (4,500 m)
  • Rate of Climb: 0551 ft/min. (854 m/s)
  • Wing Loading: 10.7 lb/ft² (52.4 kg/m²)
  • Power/Mass: 0.104 hp/lb (0.171 kW/kg)
  • Endurance: 2.5 hrs
  • Crew: Two
  • Armament:
    • Pilot: 2 × 0.312 in (7.92 mm) fixed, downwards firing LMG 08/15 machine guns
    • Observer: 1 × 0.312 in (7.92 mm) Parabellum MG14 in rear cockpit

References

  1. AEG J.I. (2010, May 4). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 23:39, November 12, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=AEG_J.I&oldid=360030562
  2. Grey, Peter and Thetford, Owen. "German Aircraft of the First World War". London: Putnam, 1962. ISBN 0-370-00103-6.

AGO C.IV

AGO C.IV
AGO C.IV

The AGO C.IV was a German reconnaissance aircraft of World War I. A departure from the manufacturer's revolutionary but effective pod-and-boom designs. The C.IV featured a traditional biplane layout with distinctive gradually tapering wings.

The AGO C.IV was powered by a Benz Bz.IV, 220 hp (164 kW) six-cylinder inline water-cooled engine. Armament consisted of a single fixed forward-firing 0.312 in (7.92 mm) LMG 08/15 "Spandau" machingun in the nose of the aircraft, and a trainable 0.312 in (7.92 mm) Parabellum MG14 machine gun in observer's cockpit.

Large orders for the C.IV were placed with Aerowerke Gustav Otto and two other manufacturers building under licence, but less than 100 were actually delivered. Although fast and well-armed, the C.IV proved unstable in the air and the pilot's seat was directly over the fuel tank which made th C.IV unpopular with aircrews.

AGO C.IV
  • Type: Reconnaissance
  • Manufacturer: AGO Flugzeugwerke
  • Entered Service: 1917
  • Primary User: Luftstreitkräfte
  • Number Built: about 70-100
  • Powerplant: 1 × Benz Bz.IV, six-cylinder inline water-cooled 220 hp (164 kW)
  • Wingspan: 39 ft 0 in (11.9 m)
  • Wing area: 400 ft² (37.5 m²)
  • Length: 29 ft 4 in (8.95 m)
  • Height: 9 ft 1 in (2.78 m)
  • Empty Weight: 1,990 lb (900 kg)
  • Gross Weight: 3,000 lb (1,350 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 120 mph (190 km/h)
  • Service Ceiling: 18,000 ft (5,500 m)
  • Crew: two, pilot and observer
  • Armament:
    • Gun - Pilot: 1 × 0.312 in (7.92 mm) LMG 08/15 in the nose
    • Gun - Observer: 1 × 0.312 in (7.92 mm) Parabellum MG14 machine gun in observer's cockpit

References

  1. From Wikipedia AGO C.IV "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AGO_C.IV"
  2. Gerdessen, F. "Estonian Air Power 1918-1945". Air Enthusiast No 18, April-July 1982. Pages 61-76. ISSN 0143-5450.
  3. Taylor, Michael J. H. (1989). "Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation". London: Studio Editions. pp. 40.

Albatros C.X

Albatros C.X  - 1917
Albatros C.X

The Albatros C.X was a very successful German military reconnaissance aircraft which saw service during the late years of World War I.

The production of the C.X model continued their commitment to producing capable reconnaissance aircraft. The C.X was designed to improve upon a successful family of aircraft by adding a more aerodynamic fuselage and improved power plants.

It was essentially an enlarged development of the C.VII designed to take advantage of the new Mercedes D.IVa engine that became available in 1917. Unlike the C.VII that preceded it in service, the C.X utilized the top wing spar-mounted radiator that had first been tried on the C.V/17. Other important modernization features included the carriage of oxygen for the crew, and radio equipment. A total of 400 Albatros C.X aircraft were built in five orders issued by Idflieg from October 1916 to January 1917.
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Albatros C.X
  • Type: Reconnaissance aircraft
  • Entered Service: 1917
  • Manufacturer: Albatros Flugzeugwerke
  • Primary User: Germany
  • Number Built: >300
  • Powerplant: 1 × Mercedes D.IVa, in-line watercooled engine, 260 hp (190 kW)
  • Wingspan: 47 ft 1 in (14.36 m)
  • Wing Area: 459 ft² (42.7 m²)
  • Length: 30 ft 0 in (9.15 m)
  • Height: 11 ft 2 in (3.4 m)
  • Empty Weight: 2,320 lb (1,050 kg)
  • Loaded weight: 3,677 lb (1,668 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 110 mph (175 km/h)
  • Service Ceiling: 16,500 ft (5,000 m)
  • Rate of Climb: 660 ft/min (3.3 m/s)
  • Endurance: 3 hours 25 min
  • Crew: two, pilot and observer
  • Armament:
    • 1 × forward-firing 0.312 in (7.92 mm) Spandau LMG 08/15 machine gun
    • 1 × 0.312 in (7.92 mm) Parabellum MG14 machine gun for observer

References

  1. From Wikipedia Albatros C.X,"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albatros_C.X"
  2. Taylor, Michael J. H. (1989). "Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation". London: Studio Editions. pp. 53.
  3. Grosz, Peter M. "Albatros C.X. Windsock Datafile 114" Berkhamsted: Albatros Productions Ltd..

Albatros J.I

Albatros J.I - 1917
Albatros J.I

The Albatros J.I was a German purpose built ground-attack aircraft of World War I. Operationally the design was a success, the main drawback of the type was that the armor was found to be inadequate for its role. The first flight was in 1917, and the J.I entered service the same year. The J.I served through the remainder of the war, and wass retired in 1921

The J.I utilized the wings and tail of the C.XII reconnaissance aircraft while adding a new slab-sided fuselage. The crew compartment was protected by 490 kg (1,080 lb) of steel armor plate, while the engine was left unprotected. Power was provided by the 150 kW (200 hp) Benz Bz.IV, which gave marginal performance when combined with the heavy J.I airframe. The fixed 7.92 mm (.312 in) "Spandau" LMG 08/15 machine guns fired downward to facilitate strafing ground targets. Defensive fire was provided by a single trainable 0.312 in (7.92 mm) Parabellum MG14 machine gun in the observer's cockpit

Albatros J.I
  • Type: Ground-attack aircraft
  • Manufacturer: Albatros Flugzeugwerke
  • First Flight: 1917
  • Entered Service: 1917
  • Retired: 1921
  • Primary Users: Luftstreitkräfte
  • Number Buil: ~240
  • Powerplan: 1 × Benz Bz.IV, 200 hp (150 kW)
  • Wingspan: 46 ft 5 in (14.14 m)
  • Wing Area: 463 ft² (43.0 m²)
  • Length: 28 ft 10 in (8.80 m)
  • Heigh: 11 ft 1 in (3.37 m)
  • Empty Weigh: 3,082 lb (1,398 kg)
  • Gross Weigh: 3,986 lb (1,808 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 90 mph (140 km/h)
  • Range: 220 miles (350 km)
  • Service Ceiling: 14,800 ft (4,500 m)
  • Rate of Climb: 400 ft/min (2 m/s)
  • Crew: two, pilot and observer
  • Armament:
    • Gun - Pilot: 2 × 0.312 in (7.92 mm) "Spandau" LMG 08/15 machine guns, fixed downward
    • Gun - Observer: 1 × 0.312 in (7.92 mm) Parabellum MG14 machine gun in the observer's cockpit

References

  1. From Wikipedia Albatros J.I, "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albatros_J.I"
  2. Gray, Peter and Owen Thetford. "German Aircraft of the First World War". London: Putnam, 1962. ISBN 0-93385-271-1.

Albatros J-II

Albatros J.II - 1917
Albatros J.II

The Albatros J.II was a German single-engine, single-seat, biplane ground-attack aircraft of World War I.

The J.2 armored reconnaissance biplane was an improvement on the J.1 with the armor plate extending to the nose to protect the more powerful 220 hp Benz IVa engine. The J.II dispensed with the propeller spinner of the earlier aircraft. Per A. Imrie, twenty machines were at the front in August 1918. The plane originally had two downward firing machine guns exiting through the fuselage floor between the undercarriage legs. This arrangement was abandoned since low altitude operations made sighting very difficult.

Albatros J.II
  • Role: Ground-attack aircraft
  • National Origin: German Empire
  • Manufacturer: Albatros Flugzeugwerke
  • First Flight: 1917
  • Entered Service: 1917
  • Primary user: Luftstreitkräfte
  • Powerplant: 1 × Benz Bz.IVa, 164 kW (220 hp)
  • Crew: two, pilot and observer
  • Armament:
    • Gun - Pilot: 2 × 0.312 in (7.92 mm) "Spandau" LMG 08/15 machine guns, fixed downward
    • Gun - Observer: 1 × 0.312 in (7.92 mm) Parabellum MG14 machine gun in the observer's cockpit

References

  1. Albatros J.II WWI Plastic Model airplanes built by Dennis Ugulano Retrieved from http://wwi.priswell.com/german/albatros/index.htm#albj2
  2. Albatros J.II. (2010, May 4). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 02:23, November 15, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Albatros_J.II&oldid=360031451
  3. Taylor, Michael J. H. (1989). "Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation". London: Studio Editions. pp. 55.

Hannover CL.III

Hannover CL.II - 1917
Hannover CL.II
Hannover CL.III - 1917
Hannover CL.IIIa

The Hannover CL.III was a German military aircraft of World War I. It was a two-seat multi-role aircraft, primarily used as a ground attack machine. Like the other Hannover “light-C-class”, or “CL” designated aircraft designed by Hermann Dorner, it included an unusual biplane tail, allowing for a greater firing arc for the tail gunner. Until the introduction of the aircraft, such tails had only been used on larger aircraft.
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Hannover CL.IIIa
  • Type: Ground attack aircraft
  • Manufacturer: Hannoversche Waggonfabrik
  • Entered Service: 1917
  • Number Built: 617
  • Powerplant:
    • Hannover CL.III: Mercedes D.III, water cooled 6-cylinder in-line 160 hp (119 kW)
    • Hannover CL.IIIa: Argus As.III, water cooled 6-cylinder in-line 180-hp (134-kW)
  • Wingspan: 38 ft 5 in (11.70 m)
  • Length: 25 ft 7 in (7.80 m)
  • Height: 9 ft 2 in (2.80 m)
  • Empty Weight: 1,720 lb (780 kg)
  • Loaded Weight: 2,469 lb (1,120 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 90 knots, 103 mph (165 km/h) at 16,400 ft (5,000 m)
  • Service Ceiling: 24,600 ft (7,500 m)
  • Endurance: 3 hours
  • Crew: Two, pilot & observer/gunner
  • Armament:
    • 1 × 7.92 mm (0.323 in) LMG 08/15 machinegun, fixed forward
    • 2 × 7.92 mm (0.323 in) LMG 08/15 machineguns ring-mounted in observer's cockpit.

References

  1. From Wikipedia Hannover Cl.II, "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hannover_Cl.II"
  2. Grosz, Peter M, "Hannover Cl.III Windsock Datafile No.23", Albatros Publications, 1990. ISBN 0-948414-27-8

Junkers J.I

Junkers J.I - 1917
Junkers J.I

In late 1916, the demand for a durable observation aircraft capable of performing ground attack missions led to the introduction of the Junkers J.I. Developed in early 1917, it was the world's first all-metal aircraft produced in quantity. Eliminating the need for external bracing wires, the fuselage, wings and tail were constructed of Duralumin while the engine and two-man crew were protected by a nose-capsule of 5-mm chrome-nickel sheet-steel. Although this unique design resulted in a strong and durable aircraft capable of surviving the effects of enemy ground fire, the Junkers J.I was heavy, cumbersome and took forever to get off the ground.

Junkers J.I
  • Type: Ground attack aircraft
  • Manufacturer: Junkers
  • First Flight: 1917
  • Entered Service: August 1917
  • Number Built: 227
  • Powerplant:
    • Benz BZ.IV, in-line water-cooled engine, 200 hp (147 kW)
    • Daimler-Mercedes D.IVa 191 kW (1918)
  • Wing Span: 52 ft 6 in (16 m)
  • Length: 29 ft 10.5 in (9.1 m)
  • Height: 11 ft 1 7/8 in (3.4 m)
  • Empty Weight: 3,893 lb (1,766 kg)
  • Loaded Weight: 4,718 lb (2,140 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 96 mph (155 km/h)
  • Crew: 2
  • Armament: 2 machine guns

References

  1. From Wikipedia Junkers_J-I, "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Junkers_J.I"
  2. Taylor, Michael J. H. (1989). "Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation". London: Studio Editions. pp. 538.
  3. "Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1919", p. 320a-321a
  4. "World Aircraft Information Files". London: Bright Star Publishing. pp. File 898 Sheet 01.

LVG C.V

LVG C.VI
LVG C.V
LVG C.V Poland 1920
LVG C.V Poland 1920

The LVG C.V was a reconnaissance aircraft produced in large numbers in Germany during World War I. It was a conventional two-bay biplane design of its day, with unstaggered wings of equal span and tandem, open cockpits for the pilot and observer. The ailerons, fitted only to the upper wing, featured aerodynamic balances that extended past the wingtips. The fuselage was a semi-monocoque construction skinned in wood.
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LVG C.V
  • Type: Reconnaissance aircraft
  • Manufacturer: Luft-Verkehrs-Gesellschaft G.m.b.H. (LVG)
  • First flight: 1917
  • Powerplant: 1 × Benz Bz.IV, water-cooled in-line engine, 200 hp (150 kW)
  • Wingspan: 44 ft 7 in (13.60 m)
  • Wing area: 436 ft² (40.5 m²)
  • Length: 26 ft 6 in (8.07 m)
  • Height: 10 ft 0 in (3.36 m)
  • Empty Weight: 2,220 lb (1,009 kg)
  • Gross Weight: 3,311 lb (1,505 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 106 mph (170 km/h)
  • Endurance: 3 hours 30 min
  • Service Ceiling: 21,300 ft (6,500 m)
  • Rate of Climb: 1,100 ft/min (5.6 m/s)
  • Crew: Two, pilot and observer
  • Armament:
    • Guns - Pilot: 1 × fixed, synchronised forward-firing 0.312 in (7.92 mm) LMG 08/15
    • Guns - Observer: 1 × trainable, rearward-firing 0.312 in (7.92 mm) Parabellum MG14
    • Bombs: 90 lb (40 kg) bombs

References

  1. From Wikipedia, LVG C.V, "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LVG_C.V"
  2. Grosz, Peter M. "LVG C.V. Windsock Datafile 71": Berkhampstead: Albatross Productions. (1998).
  3. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft. London: Aerospace Publishing.
  4. Taylor, Michael J. H. (1989). "Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation". London: Studio Editions.
  5. "World Aircraft Information Files". London: Bright Star Publishing.

Rumpler C.IV-VII

Rumpler C.IV - 1917
Rumpler C.IV

The Rumpler C.IV-VII were virtually indistinguishable from the outside. This aircraft flew with the unit Flieger-Abteilung(A ) 253 during the late summer of 1918. Leutnant der Reserve Hanns-Gerd Rabe flew numerous long range patrols. The aircraft's high ceiling kept it relatively safe from pursuing Allied fighters.

The Rumpler C.IV was a German single-engine, two-seat reconnaissance biplane. The C.IV was a development of C.III with different tail surfaces and using a Mercedes D.IVa engine in place of C.III's Benz Bz.IV. In addition to the parent company, the aircraft was also built by Pfalz Flugzeugwerke as the Pfalz C.I. Another variant of the basic design was the Rumpler 6B-2 single-seat floatplane fighter, with a 120 kW (160 hp) Mercedes D.III engine, built for the Kaiserliche Marine (Imperial Navy).
[Read more]

Rumpler C.IV
  • Type: Reconnaissance aircraft
  • Manufacturer: Rumpler Flugzeugwerke
  • Entered Service: 1917
  • Length: 27 ft 7 in (8.41 m)
  • Wingspan: 41 ft 6.5 in (12.66 m)
  • Height: 10 ft 8 in (3.25 m)
  • Empty Weight: 2,376 lb (1,080 kg)
  • Loaded Weight: 3,366 lb (1,530 kg)
  • Powerplant: 1× Mercedes D.IVa water-cooled in-line, 260 hp (194 kW)
  • Maximum Speed: 171 km/h (92 kn, 107 mph) at 1,640 ft (500 m)
  • Service Ceiling: 21,000 ft (6,400 m)
  • Endurance: 3.5-4 hr
  • Crew: 2
  • Armament:
    • Guns:
    • 1 × fixed, forward-firing 7.92 mm (.312 in) LMG 08/15
    • 1 × 7.92 mm (.312 in) “Parabellum” MG14 machine gun on a ring mounting
    • Bombs: 220 lb (100 kg)

References

  1. From Wikipedia Rumpler C-IV "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rumpler_C.IV"
  2. Gray, Peter and Thetford, Owen. "German Aircraft of the First World War". London, Putnam, 1962.
  3. Munson, Kenneth. "Aircraft of World War I". London: Ian Allen, 1967. ISBN 07110 0356.
  4. Munson, Kenneth. "Bombers, Patrol and Reconnaissance Aircraft 1914-1919". ISBN 0 7537 0918 X
  5. Munson, Kenneth. "Fighters, Attack and Training Aircraft 1914-1919". ISBN 0 7537 0916 3