By 1917 military aviation tactics and aircraft design had matured into an advanced art. Most of the basic design problems had been bearly solved. Military aviation had come of age and the skies over Europe had become a more dangerous place.. Aircraft engines had evolved into powerful and fairly reliable powerplants allowing for more rugged designs with larger weapon carrying capacity. Some of the best production model combat aircraft were first produced in this year. Later design refinements were to come, but many of the newer models would not be ready for production before the war ended.

Britain 1917British Roundel

Bristol F.2 Fighter

Bristol Fighter  F.2b - 1917
Bristol F.2 Fighter - 1917
Bristol Fighter  F.2b - 1917
Bristol Fighter F.2b - 1917

The versatile Bristol Fighter was a maneuverable, heavily armed two-seater biplane designed by Frank S. Barnwell. One of the most successful fighters of the war, it got off to a poor start during "Bloody April" when it was introduced to the Western Front by the inexperienced pilots and observers of 48 Squadron.
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Bristol F.2 Fighter
  • Type: Fighter
  • Manufacturer: British & Colonial Aeroplane Co. Ltd.
  • Entered Service: Early 1917
  • Powerplant: Rolls-Royce Falcon-III, water cooled in-line 275 hp. (205 kW)
  • Wingspan: 39 ft 3 in (11.96 m)
  • Length: 25 ft 10 in (7.87 m)
  • Height: 9 ft 9 in (2.97 m)
  • Empty Weight: 2,145 lb (975 kg)
  • Loaded Weight: 3,243 lb (1,474 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 123 mph (107 kn, 198 km/h) at 5,000 ft (1,500 m)
  • Service Ceiling: 18,000 ft (5,500 m)
  • Range: 369 mi (593 km)
  • Crew: 2
  • Armament:
    • Guns: 1× 0.303 in (7.7 mm) forward-firing Vickers machine gun in the upper fuselage
    • 1 or 2× 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Lewis Guns in the observer's cockpit
    • Bombs: 240 lb (110 kg)

References

  1. From Wikipedia Bristol F.2 Fighter, "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol_F.2_Fighter"
  2. Barnes, C.H. "Bristol Aircraft since 1910". London: Putnam, 1964.
  3. Bruce, J.M. "The Bristol Fighter". Flight, 7 November 1952, pp. 587-591.
  4. Bruce, J.M. "Warplanes of the First World War, Vol. 1". London: Macdonald, 1965.
  5. Cheesman, E.F., ed. "Fighter Aircraft of the 1914-1918 War". Letchworth, Harleyford, UK: Aero Publishers, Inc., 1960.
  6. Gutman, J. "Bristol F2 Fighter Aces of World War 1". London: Osprey Publishing, 2007. ISBN 978-1-84603-201-1.
  7. Kopan'ski, Tomasz Jan. "Samoloty Brytyjskie w Lotnictwie Polskim 1918-1930" (British Aircraft in the Polish Air Force 1918-1930) (in Polish). Bellona, Warsaw: 2001. ISBN 83-11-09315-6.

Bristol Aircraft 1918

Bristol Braemar

Bristol Braemar Mk.II - 1918
Bristol Braemar Mk.II - 1918

The Bristol Braemar was a British heavy bomber aircraft developed at the end of the First World War for the Royal Air Force. Only two prototypes were constructed.

The prototype Braemar was developed in response to the establishment of the Independent Air Force in October 1917, as a bomber capable of the long-range bombing of Berlin if necessary. A large triplane, it had internal stowage for up to six 250 lb (110 kg) bombs.

The initial design featured a unique engine installation with a central engine room housing all four engines. The engines were to be geared in pairs and power taken from the engines to the four propellers by power shafts. This design was abandoned early in development, and both the completed Braemars had a conventional engine installation, with the engines in inline tandem pairs, driving pusher and tractor propellers. However, the engine-room design was resurrected later in the Braemar's development life, for the proposed steam-powered Tramp.
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Braemar Mk.II
  • Role: Heavy bomber
  • National Origin: Great Britian
  • Manufacturer: Bristol Aeroplane Company
  • Designed by: Frank Barnwell
  • First flight: August 13, 1918
  • Number built: 2
  • Developed into: Bristol Pullman
  • Powerplant: 4 × Liberty L-12 inline engine, 400 hp (300 kW) each
  • Wingspan: 81 ft 8 in (24.89 m)
  • Wing area: 1,905 ft² (177 m²)
  • Length: 51 ft 6 in (15.73 m)
  • Height: 20 ft (6.10 m)
  • Empty weight: 10,650 lb (4,840 kg)
  • Loaded weight: 18,000 lb (8,170 kg)
  • Maximum speed: 109 kn (125 mph, 200 km/h) at sea level
  • Range: more than 1,000 mi ()
  • Service ceiling: 17,000 ft (5,100 m)
  • Wing loading: 9.45 lb/ft² (46.2 kg/m²)
  • Power/mass: 0.08 hp/lb (150 W/kg)
  • Crew: 6 - two pilots, wireless operator, engineer and two gunners
  • Armament:
    • Guns: 2 × 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Lewis machine guns
    • Bombs: up to six 250 lb (110 kg) bombs total: 1,500 lb (680 kg)

References

  1. Bristol Braemar. (2010, November 10). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 06:38, March 8, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bristol_Braemar&oldid=395872431
  2. Barnes C.H. (1964). Bristol Aircraft Since 1910. Putnam & Company Ltd. ISBN 0-370-00015-3

RAF S.E.5a

RAF SE.5a
RAF SE.5a - 1917
RAF SE.5a  - 1917
RAF SE.5a - 1917

Shortly after the development of the Scout Experimental 5, the improved S.E.5a was introduced. When it entered the war in 1917, it was superior to all its German opponents. Many pilots preferred it to the Sopwith Camel. It was easier to fly, it performed better at high altitude and its in-line engine produced less noise. It was also faster than the Sopwith Camel, allowing a pilot to break off combat at will. Disdained by Albert Ball, in the hands of airmen like William Bishop and Edward Mannock, the S.E.5a developed a reputation as a formidable fighter. With 54 victories, South African Anthony Beauchamp Proctor downed more enemy aircraft with this plane than any other ace.
[Read more]

RAF S.E.5a
  • Type: Fighter
  • Manufacturer: Royal Aircraft Factory
  • Entered Service: June 1917 (S.E.5a)
  • Number Built: 5,205
  • Powerplant: Wolseley W4a Viper, water cooled in-line, 200 hp
  • Wing Span: 26 ft 7 in (8.11 m)
  • Length: 20 ft 11 in (6.38 m)
  • Height: 9 ft 6 in (2.89 m)
  • Empty weight: 1,410 lb (639 kg)
  • Loaded Weight: 1,935 lb (880 kg)
  • Max Speed: 138 mph (222 km/h)
  • Service Ceiling: 17,000 ft (5,185 m)
  • Range: 300 miles (483 km)
  • Endurance: 2.5 hours
  • Crew: 1
  • Armament:
    • Guns: 1 × 0.303 in (7.7 mm) forward-firing Vickers machine gun
    • 1× 0.303 in (7.7 mm) drum-fed Lewis gun on upper wing
    • Bombs: 4 × 18kg Cooper bombs, two under each lower wing

References

  1. From Wikipedia Royal Aircraft Factory S.E.5, "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Aircraft_Factory_S.E.5"
  2. Bruce, J.M. "The S.E.5: Historic Military Aircraft No. 5". Flight, 17 July 1953. pp. 85–89, 93.
  3. Bruce, J.M. "The S.E.5A". Aircraft in Profile", Volume 1/Part1. Windsor, Berkshire, UK: Profile Publications Ltd., 1965 (Revised 4th edition 1975). ISBN 0-85383-410-5.
  4. Franks, Norman L.R. "SE 5/5a Aces of World War 1". Botley, Oxford, UK: Osprey Publications, 2007. ISBN 1-846031-80-X.
  5. Kopan'ski, Tomasz Jan. "Samoloty brytyjskie w lotnictwie polskim 1918-1930" (British Aircraft in the Polish Air Force 1918-1930)(in Polish). Warsaw: Bellona, 2001. ISBN 83-11-09315-6.
  6. Sturtivant, Ray ISO and Gordon Page. "The SE5 File". Tunbridge Wells, Kent, UK: Air-Britain (Historians) Ltd., 1996. ISBN 0-85130-246-7.

Sopwith Camel

Sopwith Camel - 1917
Sopwith Camel
Sopwith Camel - 1917
Sopwith Camel

An agile, highly maneuverable biplane, the Sopwith Camel accounted for more aerial victories than any other Allied aircraft during World War I. Credited with destroying 1,294 enemy aircraft, it was called the Camel due to the humped fairing over its twin machine guns. Much like a real camel, this aircraft could turn and bite you. Noted for its tendency to kill inexperienced flyers, many pilots feared its vicious spin characteristics.
[Read more]

Sopwith Camel
  • Type: Fighter
  • Manufacturer: Sopwith Aviation Company
  • First Entered Service: May 1917
  • Number Built: 5,734
  • Powerplant:
    • Bentley BR.1, 150 hp (110 kW)
    • Le Rhône, Reciprocating 9 cylinder air cooled rotary, 110 hp. (82 kW)
    • Clerget 9B, 9 cylinder, air cooled rotary, 130 hp (97 kW)
    • Clerget 9Bf, 9 cylinder, air cooled rotary, 140 hp
  • Wing Span: 26 ft 11 in (8.53 m)
  • Length: 18 ft 9 in (5.71 m)
  • Height: 8 ft 6 in (2.59 m)
  • Empty Weight: 930 lb (420 kg)
  • Loaded Weight: 1,455 lb (660 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 115 mph (185 km/h)
  • Service Ceiling: 21,000 ft (6,400 m)
  • Range: 300 mi (485 km)
  • Endurance: 2.5 hours
  • Crew: 1
  • Armament:
    • (F.1) 2 Vickers 0.303 machine guns
    • (2F.1) 1 × 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Vickers machine gun & 1 × 0.303 in (7.7 mm) drum-fed Lewis gun
    • or 2 × Lewis 0.303 in (7.7 mm) drum-fed Lewis guns

References

  1. From Wikipedia Sopwith Camel, "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sopwith_Camel"
  2. Bruce, J.M. "Sopwith Camel: Historic Military Aircraft No 10: Part I." Flight, 22 April 1955, pp. 527-532.
  3. Bruce, J.M. "Sopwith Camel: Historic Military Aircraft No 10: Part II." Flight, 29 April 1955. pp. 560-563.
  4. Clark, Alan. Aces High: The War In The Air Over The Western Front 1914 - 1918. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1973. ISBN 0-29799-464-6.
  5. Ellis, Ken. "Wrecks & Relics", 21st edition. Manchester: Crecy Publishing, 2008. ISBN 9 780859 791342
  6. Jackson, A.J. "British Civil Aircraft 1919-1972: Volume III". London: Putnam, 1988. ISBN 0-85177-818-6.
  7. Robertson, Bruce. "Sopwith: The Man and His Aircraft". London: Harleyford, 1970. ISBN 0-90043-515-1.
  8. Sturtivant, Ray and Gordon Page. "The Camel File". Tunbridge Wells, Kent, UK: Air-Britain (Historians) Ltd., 1993. ISBN 0-85130-212-2.
  9. "United States Air Force Museum Guidebook". Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio: Air Force Museum Foundation, , 1975.
  10. Winchester, Jim, ed. "Sopwith Camel." Biplanes, Triplanes and Seaplanes (Aviation Factfile). London: Grange Books plc, 2004. ISBN 1-84013-641-3.

France 1917French Roundel

Breguet Br.XIV

Breguet Br.14A2 - 1917
Breguet Br.14A2 - 1917
Breguet Br.14B2 - 1917
Breguet Br.14B2 - 1917

Used throughout the war, the innovative Breguet Br.14 was a highly successful biplane used by the French, Belgian and American air services. Designed by Louis Breguet in 1916, it was one of the first aircraft constructed with duralumin in the airframe.
[Read more]

Breguet Br.14A2
  • Type: Bomber (B2) and Reconnaissance (A2)
  • Country: France
  • Entered Service: Summer of 1917
  • Number Built: About 5,500 during World War I
  • Powerplant: Renault 12 Fox, water cooled 12 cylinder, 300 hp
  • Wing Span: 47 ft 1.25 in (14.36 m)
  • Length: 29 ft (8.87 m)
  • Height: 10 ft 10 in (3.3 m)
  • Loaded Weight: 3,892 lb (1,765 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 110 mph (177 km/h) at 6,560 ft (2,000 m)
  • Service Ceiling: 19,030 ft (5,800 m)
  • Endurance: 2 ¾ hours
  • Crew: 2
  • Armament:
    • Guns: 2-3 machine guns
    • Bombs: 661 lb (300 kg) of bombs

References

  1. Breguet Bre.4. (2011, January 5). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 07:25, January 11, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Breguet_Bre.4&oldid=406067608
  2. Taylor, Michael J. H. (1989). Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. London: Studio Editions. pp. 202.
  3. World Aircraft Information Files. London: Bright Star Publishing. pp. File 890 Sheets 78-79.

Nieuport 24

Nieuport 24
Nieuport 24 Flown by William Hérisson Escidrille 75-S
Nieuport 24 bis
Nieuport 24bis Flown by Charles Nungesser

The Nieuport 24 was a French biplane fighter aircraft during World War I designed by Gustave Delage as a replacement for the successful Nieuport 17.

The Nieuport 24 introduced a new fuselage of improved aerodynamic form, rounded wingtips, and a tail unit incorporating a small fixed fin and a curved rudder. The tail skid was sprung internally and had a neater appearance than that on earlier Nieuports. A 130 hp Le Rhône rotary engine was fitted.
[Read more]

Nieuport 24bis.
  • Type: fighter / advanced trainer
  • Manufacturer: Nieuport / British Nieuport and General Aircraft Co.
  • Designed by: Gustave Delage
  • First flight: 1917
  • Primary users:
  • France: Aéronautique Militaire
  • Britian: Royal Flying Corps, Royal Naval Air Service
  • Powerplant: 1 × Le Rhône air-cooled 9 cylinder rotary engine 130 hp (97 kW)
  • Length: 19 ft 3.5 in (5.88 m)
  • Wingspan: 26 ft 10 in (8.18 m)
  • Height: 8 ft (2.44 m)
  • Empty weight: 782 lb (354 kg)
  • Loaded weight: 1,200 lb (544 kg)
  • Maximum speed: 116 mph (187 km/h)
  • Service ceiling: 18,200 ft (5,550 m)
  • Rate of climb: 22 min to 16,400 ft (5,000 m)
  • Crew: One
  • Armament:
    • Guns:
    • French service: 1× synchronised 0.303 (7.7 mm) fixed forward-firing machine gun
    • British service: 1 × 0.303 in (7.7 mm) drum-fed Lewis machine gun on Foster mounting on upper wing

References

  1. Nieuport 24. (2010, July 13). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 10: 18, July 23, 2010, from http: //en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Nieuport_24&oldid=373176479
  2. "Nieuport Fighters in Action" published by Squadron/Signal Publications.
  3. Bruce, Jack M. "More Nieuport Classics". Air Enthusiast, Number Five, November 1977-February 1978. Bromley, Kent, UK: Pilot Press. pp. 14-28.
  4. Cheesman E.F. (ed.) Fighter Aircraft of the 1914-1918 War Letchworth, Harletford Publications, 1960 pp. 96-97

Nieuport 27

Nieuport 27
Nieuport 27

The Nieuport 27 was a French biplane fighter aircraft during World War I designed by Gustave Delage. The model 27 was the last of the line of Nieuport "V-strut" single seat fighters stemming from the Bébé of early 1916. When introduced, the Nieuport 27 was widely used by the United States Air Service. It was faster than the Nieuport 17 and was armed with twin machine guns. The Nieuport 27 shared the same defect as previous models, it tended to lose fabric from the upper wing. For this reason it was unpopular with pilots and was soon replaced by the new SPAD XIII.

The Nieuport 27's design closely followed the early form of the 24, including its semi-rounded rear fuselage and rounded wingtips and ailerons. The structural problems with the redesigned, rounded tail surfaces of the 24, which had resulted in the use of a Nieuport 17 type tail in the 24bis., were by now overcome, so that the new version was able to standardise on the new tail. By now most Nieuport fighters were actually used as advanced trainers, and the 130 hp Le Rhône Rotary engine of the 24bis. was often replaced by a 110 or 120 hp version. The trainers were not normally fitted with machine guns.
[Read more]

Nieuport 27
  • Type: fighter / advanced trainer
  • Manufacturer: Nieuport, Nieuport-Macchi
  • Designed by: Gustave Delage
  • First flight: 1917
  • Developed From: Nieuport 24
  • Primary Users:
    • France Aéronautique Militaire
    • Great Britian Royal Flying Corps
    • Italy: Corpo Aeronautico Militare
    • United States: United States Air Service
  • Wingspan: 8.18 m (26 ft 10 in)
  • Length: 5.88 m (19 ft 3.5 in)
  • Height: 2.44 m (8 ft)
  • Empty weight: 354 kg (782 lb)
  • Loaded weight: 544 kg (1200 lb)
  • Powerplant: 1× Le Rhone 9 cylinder, air cooled Rotary, 90 kW (120 hp)
  • Maximum Speed: 116 mph (187 km/h)
  • Service ceiling: 5,550 m (18,210 ft)
  • Rate of climb: 22 min to 5000 m (16,400 ft)
  • Endurance: 1.5 hours
  • Crew: One
  • Armament:
    • French/Italian service: 1 × synchronised Vickers machine gun
    • British service: 1 × Lewis gun on Foster mounting on upper wing

References

  1. Nieuport 27. (2010, May 24). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 07:04, July 25, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Nieuport_27&oldid=363829903
  2. Cooksley, Peter, Ernesto Cumpian, and Don Greer. "Nieuport Fighters in Action" Aircraft No. 167, Squadron/Signal Publications; 1st edition (September 1997) ISBN-10: 0897473779 ISBN-13: 978-0897473774
  3. Cheesman E.F. (ed.) "Fighter Aircraft of the 1914-1918" War Letchworth, Harletford Publications, 1960 pp. 96-97
  4. Davilla, Dr. James J. and Arthur Soltan "French Aircraft of the First World War" Paladin Press, January 1999 ISBN: 0963711040 ISBN-13: 9780963711045
  5. Bingham, Hiram Jr."An Explorer in the Air",Yale University Press Reprint Mar 2010 General Books ISBN: 1153865181

Nieuport 28

Nieuport 28 - 1917
Nieuport 28 - 1917

Rejected by the French and British air services, the Nieuport 28 was the first biplane fighter received in large numbers by squadrons of the United States Air Service. A favorite with aces like Harold Hartney, it was fast and maneuverable but had a tendency to shed its upper wing fabric if its pilot pulled out of a steep dive too quickly. The Nieuport 28 was replaced by the less maneuverable SPAD S.XIII.
[Read more]

Nieuport 28
  • Type: Fighter
  • Manufacturer: Société Anonyme des Establissements Nieuport
  • First Introduced: 1917
  • Powerplant: Gnome Monosoupape 9N, 9 cylinder rotary, 160 hp (120 kW)
  • Wing Span: 26 ft 9 in 8.15 m
  • Length: 21 ft 6.40 m
  • Height: 8 ft 1.75 in 2.5 m
  • Loaded Weight: 1,627 lb 737 kg
  • Maximum Speed: 122 mph 196 km/h
  • Service Ceiling: 16,995 ft 5,180 m
  • Endurance: 1.5 hours
  • Crew: 1
  • Armament: 2 × 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Vickers machine gun

References

  1. From Wikipedia Nieuport 28, "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nieuport_28"
  2. Cheesman E.F. (ed.) "Fighter Aircraft of the 1914-1918 War". Letchworth, UK: Harleyford Publications, 1960, p. 94, pp. 98-99, p. 106.
  3. Cooksley, Peter. "Nieuport Fighters in Action" (Aircraft No. 167). Carrollton, Texas: Squadron/Signal Publications, 1997. ISBN 0-89747-377-9.
  4. Dorr, Robert F. and David Donald. "Fighters of the United States Air Force". London: Aerospace Publishing, 1990. ISBN 0-60055-094-X.
  5. Treadwell, Terry C. "America's First Air War". London: Airlife Publishing, 2000, pp. 16-17. ISBN 1-84037-113-7.

SPAD S XIII

SPAD S-XIII 1917
SPAD S-XIII 1917

Equipped with twin machine guns and a larger engine, the SPAD S.XIII was based upon the smaller SPAD S.VII. Built in large numbers, it was fast and powerful but difficult to fly. The SPAD S.XIII was flown by many of the famous aces including Georges Guynemer, Rene Fonck, and also by Italian ace Francesco Baracca. Aces of the United States Army Air Service who flew the Spad XIII include and Eddie Rickenbacker, (America's leading ace with 26 confirmed victories) and Frank Luke (18 victories). Irish ace William Cochran-Patrick scored more victories with the SPAD S.VII and SPAD S.XIII than any other ace.
[Read more]

SPAD S XIII
  • Type: Fighter
  • Manufacturer: Société Pour L'Aviation et ses Dérivés
  • Designed By: Louis Béchereau
  • First Introduced: September 1917
  • Number Built: 8,472
  • Powerplant: Hispano-Suiza 8 BEc, water cooled V-8, 235 hp
  • Wing Span: 26 ft 11 in
  • Length: 20 ft 8 in
  • Height: 7 ft 11 in
  • Loaded Weight: 1,801 lb
  • Maximum Speed: 138 mph at 6,560 ft
  • Service Ceiling: 21,820 ft
  • Endurance: 2 hours
  • Crew: 1
  • Armament: 2 × 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Vickers machine guns

References

  1. From Wikipedia SPAD S-XIII, "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SPAD_S.XIII"
  2. Sharpe, Michael (2000). "Biplanes, Triplanes, and Seaplanes". London: Friedman/Fairfax Books, p 272. ISBN 1-58663-300-7.
  3. Bruce, J.M. (1982). "The Aeroplanes of the Royal Flying Corps" (Military Wing). London: Putnam, pp. 561-564. ISBN 0 370 30084 x.
  4. Winchester, Jim (2006). "Fighter - The World's Finest Combat Aircraft - 1913 to the Present Day". Barnes & Noble Publishing, Inc. and Parragon Publishing, p.18, p. 23. ISBN 0-7607-7957-0.

Austria 1917Austrian Cross

Albatros D-III (Oeffag)

Albatros D-III (Oeffag) Series 53 - 1917
Albatros D-III Series 53 sn. 53.60
Albatros D-III (Oeffag) Series 153 - 1917
Albatros D-III Oeffag Series 153 Lt. Jozsef Kiss, Flik 55J sn. 153.47
Albatros D-III (Oeffag) Series 253 - 1918
Albatros D-III Oeffag Series 253 sn. 253.06

The Austro-Hungarian version of the Albatros D-III was produced under license by the firm Oeffag. It had several minor external differences identifying it from the German made fighters. In the autumn of 1916, Oesterreichische Flugzeugfabrik AG (Oeffag) obtained a licence to build the D.III at Wiener-Neustadt. Deliveries commenced in May 1917.

The Oeffag aircraft were built in three main versions (series 53, 153, 253) using the 185, 200, or 225 hp (138, 149, or 168 kW) Austro-Daimler engines respectively. The Austro-Daimlers provided improved performance over the Mercedes D.IIIa engine. For cold weather operations, Oeffag aircraft featured a winter cowling which fully enclosed the cylinder heads.

Albatros D-III (Oeffag)
  • Type: Reconnaissance
  • National Origin: Austria-Hungary
  • Manufacturer: Oesterreichische Flugzeugfabrik AG (Oeffag)
  • Entered Service: 1917
  • Primary User: KuKLFT
  • Powerplant:
    • Series 53: Austro-Daimler, 185 hp (138 kW) 6 cylinder liquid cooled inline engine
    • Series 153:Austro-Daimler, 200 hp (149 kW) 6 cylinder liquid cooled inline engine
    • Series 253: Austro-Daimler, 225 hp (168 kW) 6 cylinder liquid cooled inline engine
  • Wing Span: 45 ft 10 in 13.97 m
  • Length: 26 ft 2 in 7.97 m
  • Height: 10 ft 10 in 3.30 m
  • Loaded Weight: 2,400 lb 1,088 kg
  • Maximum Speed: 62 mph 100 km/h
  • Endurance: 4 hours
  • Crew: 1
  • Armament: 2 × Synchronised fixed forward-firing 0.315 in (8 mm) Schwarzlose machine guns

Austrian pilots often removed the propeller spinner from early production aircraft, since it was prone to falling off in flight. Beginning with aircraft 112 of the series 153 production run, Oeffag introduced a new rounded nose that eliminated the spinner. Remarkably, German wind-tunnel tests showed that the simple rounded nose improved propeller efficiency and raised the top speed by 14 km/h (9 mph).

All Oeffag variants were armed with two 0315 in (8 mm) Schwarzlose machine guns. In most aircraft, the guns were buried in the fuselage, where they were inaccessible to the pilot. In service, the Schwarzlose proved to be somewhat less reliable than the 0.312 in (7.92 mm) LMG 08/15, mainly due to problems with the synchronization gear. The Schwarzlose also had a poor rate of fire. At the request of pilots, the guns were relocated to the upper fuselage decking late in the series 253 production run.

Oeffag engineers noted the wing failures of the D.III and modified the lower wing to use thicker ribs and spar flanges. These changes, as well as other detail improvements, largely resolved the structural problems that had plagued German versions of the D.III. In service, the Oeffag aircraft proved to be popular, robust, and effective. Oeffag built approximately 526 D.III aircraft between May 1917 and the Armistice

References

  1. From Wikipedia Albatros D.III, "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albatros_D.III"
  2. Grosz, Peter M., George Haddow and Peter Schiemer. "Austro-Hungarian Army Aircraft of World War I". Boulder, CO: Flying Machines Press, 2002, p. 251. ISBN 1-89126-805-8.

Aviatik (Berg) D-I

Aviatik-Berg (Aviatik) D-I Ba 38- 1918
Aviatik-Berg (Aviatik) D-I Ba 38- 1918
Aviatik-Berg (Aviatik) D-I Ba 138- 1918
Aviatik (Berg) D-I Ba. 138 Flik 74J sn. 138.55 - 1918
Aviatik-Berg (Aviatik) D-I Ba. 338 - 1918
Aviatik-Berg (Aviatik) D-I Ba. 338 - 1918

The Aviatik D.I, was a single-engine, single-seater fighter biplane. The Aviatik D.I represented the first wholly Austro-Hungarian designed fighter in the Austro-Hungarian Air Service (Luftfahrtruppen). It was also known as the Berg D.I or the Berg Fighter after its designer, Julius von Berg.

The D.I was a good combat aircraft. It was reasonably fast, had excellent flying characteristics and maneuverability, and could reach higher altitudes than most of its adversaries. In addition, it was provided with a roomy and comfortable cockpit which gave a good field of view.
[Read more]

Aviatik (Berg) D-I
  • Type: Fighter
  • National Origin: Austria-Hungary
  • Manufacturer: Österreichische-Ungarische Flugzeugfabrik
  • Designed by: Julius von Berg
  • Initial Design: August 1916
  • First Prototype Flight: October 16, 1916
  • First Production Flight: January 24, 1917
  • Entered Service: 1917
  • Primary User: KuKLFT
  • Produced: 1917 - 1918
  • Number Built: aprox. 700
  • Length: 22 ft 6 in (6.86 m)
  • Wingspan: 26 ft 3 in (8.00 m)
  • Height: 8 ft 2 in (2.48 m)
  • Wing Area: (21.80 m²)
  • Empty Weight: 1,345 lb (610 kg)
  • Loaded Weight: 1,878 lb (852 kg)
  • Powerplant: 1× Austro-Daimler water-cooled in-line, 200 hp (147 kW)
  • Maximum Speed: 115 mph (185 km/h) at sea level
  • Range: 2 hours 30 minutes (of flying time)
  • Service ceiling: (6150 m)
  • Crew: 1
  • Armament: 2 × Synchronised fixed forward-firing 0.315 in (8 mm) Schwarzlose machine guns

References

  1. Aviatik D.I. (2011, April 26). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 07:37, September 3, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Aviatik_D.I&oldid=425950351
  2. Aviatik Berg D.I photos from the Vienna technical Museum http://www.idflieg.com/aviatik-berg-di.htm</li>
  3. "The Aerodrome" page regarding the Aviatik D.I http://www.theaerodrome.com/aircraft/austrhun/aviatik_di.html
  4. Holmes, Tony (2005). Jane's Vintage Aircraft Recognition Guide. London: Harper Collins. ISBN 0 0071 9292 4.
  5. Munson, Kenneth - Fighters, Attack and Training Aircraft 1914-19 ISBN 0-7537-0916-3

Phönix D.I - D.II

Phönix D-I
Phönix D-I - 1917
Phönix D-IIa - 1917
Phönix D-II - 1917

The Phönix D.I was an Austro-Hungarian First World War biplane fighter built by the Phönix Flugzeug-Werke and based on the Hansa-Brandenburg D.I.
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Phönix D.I
  • Type: Biplane fighter
  • National Origin: Austria-Hungary
  • Manufacturer : Phönix Flugzeug-Werke
  • First Flight: 1917
  • Primary user: KuKLFT
  • Number Built: 158
  • Powerplant:
    • (D.I) 1 × Hiero 6-cylinder inline piston, 200 hp (149 kW)
    • (D.III) 1 × Hiero 6-cylinder inline piston, 230hp (172kW)
  • Wingspan: 31 ft 11¾ in (9.75 m)
  • Length: 21 ft 9¾ in (6.65 m)
  • Height: 9 ft 2¼ in (2.80 m)
  • Gross Weight: 1775 lb (805 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 112 mph (180 km/h)
  • Endurance: 2 hours
  • Service ceiling: 19,685 ft (6000 m)
  • Crew: 1
  • Armament: 2 × Synchronised fixed forward-firing 0.315 in (8 mm) Schwarzlose machine guns

References

  1. Phönix D.I. (2010, February 13). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 03:22, July 2, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ph%C3%B6nix_D.I&oldid=343856688
  2. Taylor, Michael J. H. (1989). "Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation". London: Studio Editions.
  3. "The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft" (Part Work 1982-1985). Orbis Publishing.
  4. Lamberton, W.M. (1960). "Fighter Aircraft of the 1914-1918 War". Herts: Harleyford Publications Ltd.. pp. 22-23.

Germany 1917German Cross

Albatros D.V

Albatros D.V - 1917
Albatros D.V Jasta 28 - 1917
Albatros D.Va - 1917
Albatros D.Va Jasta 61 - 1917

The Albatros D.V was a fighter aircraft used by the Luftstreitkräfte (Imperial German Air Service) during World War I. The D.V was the final development of the Albatros D.I family, and the last Albatros fighter to see operational service. Despite its well-known structural shortcomings and general obsolescence, approximately 900 D.V and 1,612 D.Va aircraft were built before production halted in early 1918. The D.Va continued in operational service until the end of the war.
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Albatros D.V
  • Type: Fighter
  • Manufacturer: Albatros-Flugzeugwerke
  • First Flight: April 1917
  • Primary User: Luftstreitkräfte
  • Number Built: approximately 2500
  • Powerplant: 1× Mercedes D.IIIaü 6-cylinder water-cooled inline engine, 180 hp (134 kW)
  • Wingspan: 29 ft 8 in (9.04 m)
  • Wing area: 228.5 ft² (21.20 m²)
  • Length: 24 ft 1 in (7.33 m)
  • Height: 8 ft 10 in (2.70 m)
  • Empty weight: 1,515 lb (687 kg)
  • Loaded weight: 2,066 lb (937 kg)
  • Maximum speed: 116 mph (187 km/h) at sea level
  • Service ceiling: 18,045 ft (5,500 m)
  • Wing loading: (44 kg/m²)
  • Time to climb: 4.35 min to 3,600 ft (1,000 m)
  • Endurance: 2 hours
  • Crew: one, pilot
  • Armament: 2 × forward-firing fixed synchronized 0.312 in (7.92 mm) LMG 08/15 machine guns

References

  1. "Albatros D.V", From Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albatros_D.V
  2. Bennett, Leon. "Gunning for the Red Baron". College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press, 2006. ISBN 1-58544-507-X.
  3. Connors, John F. "Albatros Fighters in Action" (Aircraft No. 46). Carrollton, TX: Squadron/Signal Publications, Inc, p. 22, p. 124. 1981. ISBN 0-89747-115-6.
  4. Green, William and Gordon Swanborough. "The Complete Book of Fighters". London: Salamander Books, 1994. ISBN 0-83173-939-8.
  5. Grosz, Peter M. "Albatros D.III (Windsock Datafile Special)". Berkhamsted, Herts, UK: Albatros Publications, 2003. ISBN 1-90220-762-9.
  6. Mikesh, Robert C. "Albatros D.Va. : German Fighter of World War I". Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1980, p. 7, p. 15, p. 17. ISBN 0-87474-633-7
  7. Van Wyngarden, Greg. "Albatros Aces of World War I Part 2" (Aircraft of the Aces No. 77). Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 2007, p. 40, p. 65. ISBN 1-84603-179-6.

Fokker Dr.I

Fokker Dr.I - 1917
Fokker Dr.I Jasta 5 - 1917
Fokker Dr.I - 1917
Fokker Dr.I Jasta 26- 1917

The Fokker DR.I triplane was built after the successful Sopwith Triplane. While the Fokker DR.I not as fast as many contemporary biplanes, the Dreidecker could easily outclimb any opponent. Small, lightweight and highly maneuverable, it offered good upward visibility and lacked the traditional bracing wires that could be shot away during combat. This combination of features made it an outstanding plane in a dogfight.
[Read more]

Fokker Dr.I
  • Manufacturer: Fokker Flugzeug-Werke GmbH
  • Type: Fighter
  • First Introduced: August 1917
  • Number Built: 320
  • Powerplant: Oberursel UR-II, air cooled 9 cylinder rotary, 110 hp. (82 kW)
  • Wing Span: 23 ft 7 3/8 in (7.19 m)
  • Length: 18 ft 11 1/8 in (5.77 m)
  • Height: 9 ft 8 in
  • Empty Weight: 893 lb
  • Loaded Weight: 1,289.2 lb (586 kg)
  • Speed: 103 mph 165 kmh 13120 ft (4000 m)
  • Service Ceiling: 20,013 ft (6100 m)
  • Endurance: 1½ hours
  • Crew: 1
  • Armament: 2 × forward firing Spandau 7.92mm machine guns

References

  1. "Fokker_Dr-I", From Wikipedia "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fokker_Dr.I"
  2. Franks, Norman. "Sopwith Triplane Aces of World War I" (Aircraft of the Aces No. 62). Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 2004, p. 9, p. 21. ISBN 1-84176-728-X.
  3. Franks, Norman and Greg VanWyngarden. "Fokker Dr.I Aces of World War I" (Aircraft of The Aces No. 40). Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 2001, p. 22, pp. 25-27, p. 55, p. 83. ISBN 1-84176-223-7.
  4. Gray, Peter and Owen Thetford. "German Aircraft of the First World War". London: Putnam, 1962, p. 100. ISBN 0-93385-271-1
  5. Leaman, Paul. "Fokker Dr.I Triplane: A World War One Legend". Hersham, Surrey, UK: Classic Publications, 2003, pp. 30, 32, p. 34, p. 53, p. 69, p. 95-96, p. 181, p. 222. ISBN 1-90322-328-8.
  6. Nowarra, Heinz J. "Fokker Dr.I In Action" (Aircraft No. 98). Carrollton, TX: Squadron/Signal Publications, Inc., 1990, p. 12, p. 47. ISBN 0-89747-229-2.
  7. Van Wyngarden, Greg. "Richthofen's Flying Circus: Jagdgeschwader Nr I" (Aviation Elite Units No. 16). Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 2004, p. 75. ISBN 1-84176-726-3.
  8. Weyl, A.R. "Fokker: The Creative Years". London: Putnam, 1965, p. 226, p. 228-229, pp. 231-236, pp. 238-239, pp. 244-246, p. 410. ISBN 0-85177-817-8.

Fokker D.VI

Fokker D.VI - 1918
Fokker D.VI

The Fokker D.VI was an excellent aircraft that was not to be. It was overshadowed by the success of the Fokker D.VII. The design was a biplane based on a streched Dr.1 fuselage. Only a handfull were built and entered service.

Fokker D.VI
  • Type: Fighter
  • Manufacturer: Fokker Flugzeug-Werke GmbH
  • Powerplant: 1× Rhone Air Cooled 9 cylinder Rotary . (82 kW)
  • Wing Span: (7.66 m)
  • Length: (6.19 m)
  • Service Ceiling: 10 ft 10 in (3.30 m)
  • Empty Weight: (392 kg)
  • Loaded Weight: (582 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: (201 km/h)
  • Service Ceiling: (5940 m)
  • Crew: 1
  • Armament: 2 × forward firing Spandau 7.92mm machine guns

References

  1. "Fokker D.VI", From Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fokker_D.VI
  2. Gray, Peter and Owen Thetford. "German Aircraft of the First World War". London: Putnam, 1962, p. 102-103. ISBN 0-93385-271-1
  3. Taylor, Michael J. H. "Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation". London: Crescent Books, 1993. ISBN 0-51710-316-8.
  4. Weyl, A.R. "Fokker: The Creative Years". London: Putnam, 1965, p. 262, p. 264, p. 269, p. 271. ISBN 0-85177-817-8.

Pfalz D.III

Pfalz D.III - 1917
Pfalz D.III - 1917
Pfalz D.IIIa - 1918
Pfalz D.IIIa - 1917

The Pfalz D.III was a fighter aircraft used by the Luftstreitkräfte (Imperial German Air Service) during the First World War. The D.III was the first major original design from Pfalz Flugzeugwerke. Though generally considered inferior to contemporary Albatros and Fokker fighters, the D.III was widely used by the Jagdstaffeln from the fall of 1917 through the summer of 1918. It continued to serve as a training aircraft until the end of the war.

Prior to World War I, Pfalz Flugzeugwerke produced Morane-Saulnier monoplane designs under license. These aircraft entered military service as the Pfalz A- and E-series. In September 1916, Pfalz began producing the first of 20 Roland D.I and 200 Roland D.II fighters under license.
[Read more]

Pfalz D.III
  • Type: Fighter
  • Designed By: Rudolph Gehringer
  • Manufacturer: Pfalz Flugzeugwerke GmbH
  • First Flight : April 1917
  • Enterted Service: 1917
  • In Service: 1917-1918
  • Primary User: Luftstreitkräfte
  • Number Built: approximately 1010
  • Powerplant: 1× Mercedes D.IIIaü, inline watercooled engine, 180 hp (119 kW)
  • Wingspan: 30 ft 10 in (9.40 m)
  • Wing Area: 238.6 ft² (22.17 m²)
  • Length: 22 ft 9 in (6.95 m)
  • Height: 8 ft 9 in (2.67 m)
  • Empty Weight: 1,521 lb (690kg)
  • Max Takeoff Weight: 2,061 lb (935 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 115 mph (185 km/h) at sea level; 102.5 mph at 9,842 ft; 91.5 mph at 15,000 ft
  • Service Ceiling: 17,060 ft (5,200 m)
  • Rate of Climb: 33 minutes to 15,000 ft (4,600 m)
  • Crew: One
  • Armament: 2× 0.312 in 7.92 mm LMG 08/15 "Spandau" machine guns

References

  1. "Pfalz D.III", From Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pfalz_D.III
  2. Gray, Peter and Owen Thetford. "German Aircraft of the First World War". London: Putnam, 1962, p. 188-189. ISBN 0-93385-271-1.
  3. Grosz, Peter M. "Pfalz D.IIIa" (Windsock Datafile No. 2l). Berkhamsted, Herts, UK: Albatros Publications, 1995, p. 2, pp. 7-9. ISBN 0-94841-425-1.
  4. Guttman, Jon. "Balloon-Busting Aces of World War 1" (Aircraft of the Aces No. 66). Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 2005, p. 9. ISBN 1-84176-877-4.
  5. Herris, Jack. "Pfalz Aircraft of World War I" (Great War Aircraft in Profile, Volume 4). Boulder, Colorado: Flying Machine Press, 2001, p. 10, pp. 27-30, pp. 61-62, p. 154. ISBN 1-891268-15-5.
  6. Van Wyngarden, Greg. "Pfalz Scout Aces of World War I" (Aircraft of the Aces No. 71). Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 2006, pp. 18-19, pp. 45-46, pp. 50, 62, p. 77. ISBN 1-84176-998-3.

Rumpler D.I

Rumpler D.I - 1917
Rumpler D.I

The Rumpler D.I (factory designation 8D1) was a fighter-reconnaissance aircraft produced in Germany at the end of World War I. It was a conventional single-bay biplane with wings of unequal span braced by I-struts. It featured an open cockpit and a fixed, tailskid undercarriage. The upper wing was fitted with aerodynamically balanced ailerons and fuselage had an oval cross-section.
[Read more]

Rumpler D.I
  • Type: Fighter
  • Manufacturer: Rumpler
  • Primary User: Luftstreitkräfte
  • First flight : 1917
  • Powerplant: 1 × Mercedes D.III, six-cylinder water-cooled inline engine, 160 hp (120 kW)
  • Wingspan: 27 ft 8 in (8.42 m)
  • Length: 18 ft 10 in (5.75 m)
  • Height: 8 ft 5 in (2.56 m)
  • Empty Weight: 1,390 lb (630 kg)
  • Gross Weight: 1,860 lb (846 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 110 mph (180 km/h)
  • Range: 3230 miles (60 km)
  • Service Ceiling: 23,000 ft (7,000 m)
  • Crew: one
  • Armament: 2 × fixed, forward-firing synchronised 0.312 in (7.92 mm) LMG 08/15 "Spandau" machine guns

References

  1. "Rumpler D.I", From Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rumpler_D.I
  2. Gray, Peter and Owen Thetford. "German Aircraft of the First World War". London: Putnam, 1962, p. 534-237.
  3. "The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft". London: Aerospace Publishing, 1985, p. 2834.
  4. Kroschel, Günter and Helmut Stützer. "Die Deutschen Militärflugzeuge 1910-1918" (in German). Wilhelmshaven: Herford Verlag, E.S. Mittler & Sohn, 1994. ISBN 3-920602-18-8.
  5. Murphy, Justin D. "Military Aircraft: Origins to 1918: An Illustrated History of their Impact". Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-Clio, 2005. ISBN 1-85109-488-1.
  6. Taylor, Michael J. H. "Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation". London: Studio Editions, 1989, pp. 771-772. ISBN 0-51710-316-8.

Siemens Schuckert D.III

Siemens-Schuckert D.III - 1917
Siemens-Schuckert D.III - 1917

Sleek, rugid, fast and nimble were all words that could be used to describe the Siemens Schuckert D.III. Though not produced in great numbers it was an important design from the point of view of future aircraft design.

Siemens Schuckert D.III
  • Manufacturer: Siemens-Schuckert Werke
  • Type: Fighter
  • Entered Service: 1917
  • Powerplant: 1× Siemens-Halske SH.III air cooled 160 hp (120 kW)
  • Wing Span: 8.40 m
  • Length: 5.75 m
  • Empty Weight: 534 kg
  • Loaded Weight: 725 kg
  • Maximum Speed: 180 km/h
  • Service Ceiling: 8000 m
  • Crew:1
  • Armament: 2 × forward firing Spandau 7.92mm machine guns

References

  1. "Siemens-Schuckert D.III", From Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siemens-Schuckert_D.III
  2. Gray, Peter and Owen Thetford. "German Aircraft of the First World War". London: Putnam, 1962. ISBN 0-93385-271-1.
  3. Green, William and Gordon Swanborough. "The Complete Book of Fighters". London: Salamander Books, 1994. ISBN 0-83173-939-8.
  4. Van Wyngarden, Greg. "Jagdgeschwader Nr II Geschwader 'Berthold'" (Aviation Elite Units No. 19). Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 2005. ISBN 1-84176-727-1.