Curtiss Model H

Curtiss Model H-12
Curtiss Model H-12

The Curtiss Model H was a family of classes of early long-range flying boats, the first two of which were developed directly on commission in the United States in response to the £10,000 prize challenge issued in 1913 by the London newspaper, the Daily Mail, for the first non-stop aerial crossing of the Atlantic. As the first aircraft having trans-Atlantic range and cargo-carrying capacity, it became the grandfather development leading to early international commercial air travel, and by extension, to the modern world of commercial aviation. The last widely produced class, the Model H-12, was retrospectively designated Model 6 by Curtiss' company in the 1930s, and various classes have variants with suffixed letters indicating differences.

Having transatlantic range and cargo carrying capacity by design, the first H-2 class (soon dubbed "The Americans" by the Royal Navy) was quickly drafted into wartime use as a patrol and rescue aircraft by the RNAS, the air arm of the British Royal Navy. The original two "contest" aircraft were in fact temporarily seized by the Royal Navy, which later paid for them and placed an initial follow-on order for an additional 12 — all 14 of which were militarized (e.g. by adding gun mounts) and designated the "H-4" (the two originals were thereafter the "H-2" Models to air historians). These changes were produced under contract from Curtiss' factory in the last order of 50 "H-4s", giving a class total of 64, before the evolution of a succession of larger, more adaptable, and more robust H-class models. This article covers the whole line of nearly 500 Curtiss Model H seaplane flying boat aircraft known to have been produced, since successive models - by whatever sub-model designation - were physically similar, handled similarly, essentially just being increased in size and fitted with larger and improved engines — the advances in internal combustion engine technology in the 1910s being as rapid and explosive as any technological advance has ever been.
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Curtiss Model H-12A
  • Role: Experimental flying boat
  • Manufacturer: Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company
  • First flight: June 1914
  • Introduction: 1917
  • Retired: 1918
  • Primary users:
    • United States Navy
    • Royal Naval Air Service
  • Number built: 478
  • Developed from: Curtiss Model E
  • Variants:
    • Felixstowe F.1
    • Felixstowe F.2
  • Powerplant: 2 × Rolls-Royce Eagle I, 275 hp (205 kW) each
  • Wingspan: 92.71 ft in (28.26 m)
  • Wing area: 1,216 ft² (113.0 m²)
  • Length: 46.5 ft in (14.18 m)
  • Height: 16.5 ft in (5.03 m)
  • Empty weight: 7,293 lb (3,609 kg)
  • Gross weight: 10,650 lb (5,550 kg)
  • Maximum speed: 85 mph (137 km/h)
  • Endurance: 6 hours
  • Service ceiling: 10,800 ft (3,292 m)
  • Rate of climb: 336 ft/min (1.7 m/s)
  • Crew: Four
  • Armament:
  • Guns: 4 × .303 in (7.7 mm) Lewis guns on flexible mounts
  • Bombs: 4 × 100 lb (45 kg) or 2 × 230 lb (105 kg) bombs below the wings

References

  1. Curtiss Model H. (2010, August 29). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 22:05, October 31, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Curtiss_Model_H&oldid=381703213
  2. RCAF.com: The Aircraft: Curtiss H.12 http://rcaf.com/aircraft/patrol/h12/index.php?name=H.12
  3. Curtiss H.12 http://www.worldwar1.com/dbc/curth12.htm
  4. Curtiss H-4 America http://www.airforce.forces.gc.ca/site/equip/historical/americalst_e.asp
  5. Reproduction Curtiss H-1 America Flies-September 2008 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b_1Z_wxA2CY
  6. Roseberry, C.R. "Glenn Curtiss: Pioneer of Flight". Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Company, 1972. ISBN 0-81560-264-2.
  7. Shulman, Seth. "Unlocking the Sky: Glen Hammond Curtiss and the Race to Invent the Airplane". New York: Harper Collins, 2002. ISBN 0-06-019633-5.
  8. Swanborough, Gordon and Peter M. Bowers. "United States Navy Aircraft since 1911", Second edition. London: Putnam, 1976, pp. 106–107. ISBN 0-370-10054-9.
  9. Taylor, Michael J.H. "Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation". London: Studio Editions, 1989, p. 281. ISBN 0-71060-710-5.
  10. Thetford, Owen. "British Naval Aircraft since 1912", Fourth edition. London: Putnam, 1978, pp. 80–83. ISBN 0-370-30021-1.
  11. "World Aircraft Information Files: File 891", Sheet 44–45. London: Bright Star Publishing, 2002.

Curtiss Model S

Curtiss Model S-3 - 1917
Curtiss Model S-3 Model 10

The Curtiss Model S (also known as Speed Scout or Model 10) was a single-seat fighter aircraft.

The Model S was Curtiss' first attempt at a fast and maneuverable single-seat fighter. The first variant, S-1, had disappointing performance. In March 1917, new wings were attached to the S-1 fuselage and the project was redesignated S-2. In 1917, the S-3 became the first triplane in service in the United States. In 1918 and 1919, Curtiss experimented with seaplane versions of the S-3, designated S-4 and S-5. The S-6 was intended to be an improved S-3, but performance was poor and of the 12 ordered by the USASC, only 1 was delivered.

Curtiss Model S-3
  • Role: fighter
  • National origin: United States
  • Manufacturer: Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company
  • Variants:
    • S-1 Speed Scout: Biplane, unarmed
    • S-2 Wireless Biplane: updated S-1 lacked wing wires. First flight in March 1917.
    • S-3 Model 10: Triplane derived from S-2. Four built.
    • S-4 Model 10A: Seaplane version of S-3 with 2 main floats
    • S-5 Model 10B: Seaplane version of S-3 with 1 main central float and two wingtip floats.
    • S-6 Model 10C: Triplane, improved S-3
  • Length: 19 ft 6 in (5.94 m)
  • Wingspan: 25 ft 0 in (7.62 m)
  • Height: 8 ft 7 in (2.62 m)
  • Wing area: 142.6 ft² (13.25 m²)
  • Empty weight: 970 lb (440 kg)
  • Gross weight: 1,320 lb (599 kg)
  • Powerplant: 1 × Curtiss OXX-3, 100 hp (75 kW)
  • Maximum speed: 115 mph (185 km/h)
  • Service ceiling: 16,500 ft (5,029 m)
  • Crew: 1

References

  1. "Curtiss Model S". (2010, March 17). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 04:14, January 16, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Curtiss_Model_S&oldid=350489016
  2. Curtiss Model S The-Blueprints.com Retrieved from http://www.the-blueprints.com/blueprints/ww1planes/ww1-usa/36100/view/curtiss_s-3_%28usa%29_%281917%29/
  3. Angelucci, Enzo "The American Fighter from 1917 to the present", pp. 112-113. 1987 New York: Orion Books.
  4. Bowers, Peter M. "Curtiss Aircraft 1907-1947", p.133. 1979 London: Putnam. ISBN 0 370 10029 8.

Heinrich Pursuit

Heinrich Pursuit 1917
Heinrich Pursuit

The Heinrich Pursuit was an American fighter prototype of the 1910s. It was the only known aircraft designed by Albert Heinrich.

During the 19 months in which the US participated in World War I, several attempts were made to design competent single-seat fighters of original design. Among these was the Heinrich Pursuit, conceived in 1917 by Albert Heinrich and built by the Victor Aircraft Corporation. Aerodynamically clean, the Pursuit was a single-bay, unequal-span biplane, powered by a 100 hp Gnome engine.
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Heinrich Pursuit
  • Role: Fighter
  • National Origin: United States
  • Manufacturer: Victor Aircraft Corporation
  • Designed By: Albert S Heinrich
  • First Flight: 1917
  • Number Built: 4
  • Users: United States US Army Signals Corps
  • Status: Prototype
  • Variants:
  • Mk I: fighter version (2 built)
  • Mk II: lighter, faster fighter trainer version (2 built)
  • Powerplant: 1 × Gnome nine-cylinder rotary engine, 100 hp (75 kW)
  • Wingspan: 26 ft 0 in (7.92 m)
  • Wing Area: 162.5 ft² (15.09 m²)
  • Gross Weight: 1235 lb (560 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 115 mph (185 km/h)
  • Crew: 1

References

  1. Heinrich Pursuit. (2011, January 2). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 08:08, January 15, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Heinrich_Pursuit&oldid=405417275
  2. Heinrich Pursuit 1917 The Virtual Aircraft Museum Retrieved 08:18, January 15, 2011, from http://www.aviastar.org/air/usa/heinrich_pursuit.php
  3. Heinrich Pursuit 1917 usa, The-Blueprints.com Retrieved 08:20, January 10, 2011, from http://www.the-blueprints.com/blueprints/ww1planes/ww1-usa/36132/view/heinrich_pursuit_%28usa%29_%281917%29/
  4. Green, William; Gordon Swanborough. The Complete Book of Fighters. Godalming, UK: Salamander Books. pp. 415.

Lewis Vought VE-7

Lewis Vought VE-7 - 1917
Lewis Vought VE-7 - 1917

The Vought VE-7 Bluebird was an early biplane of the United States. fist flying in 1917, it was designed as a 2-seat trainer for the United States Army, then adopted by the United States Navy as its very first fighter aircraft. In 1922, a VE-7 became the first plane to take off from an American aircraft carrier.

The Lewis & Vought Corporation was formed just months after the US entered World War I, with the intention of servicing war needs. The company's trainer was patterned after successful European designs; for instance, the engine was a Wright Hispano Suiza of the type used by the French Spads. In practice, the VE-7's performance was much better than usual for a trainer, and comparable to the best fighters, and the Army ordered 1,000 of an improved design called the VE-8. However, the contract was cancelled due to the end of the war.

However, the Navy was very interested in the VE-7, and received a 1st machine in May 1920. Production orders soon followed, in fact beyond what the fledgling Vought organization could handle, and the Naval Aircraft Factory was pressed into service. In all, 128 VE-7s were built.
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Vought VE-7
  • Role: Fighter & Trainer
  • National origin: United States of America
  • Manufacturer: Lewis & Vought Corporation
  • Designed by: Chance Milton Vought
  • First flight: 1917
  • Primary users:
    • United States Navy
    • United States Army Air Service
  • Produced: 1918-1928
  • Number built: 128
  • Powerplant: 1 × Wright-Hispano E-3 two bladed 8 ft 8 in (2.64 m) diameter propeller, 180 hp (134 kW)
  • Wingspan: 34 ft 4 in (10.47 m)
  • Wing area: 284.5 ft² (26.43 m²)
  • Length: 24 ft 5.375 in (7.45 m)
  • Height: 8 ft 7.5 in (2.63 m)
  • Empty weight: 1,392 lb (631 kg)
  • Loaded weight: 1,937 lb (879 kg)
  • Maximum speed: 106 mph (171 km/h)
  • Range: 290 mi (467 km)
  • Service ceiling: 15,000 ft (4,600 m)
  • Rate of climb: 738 ft/min (225 m/min)
  • Crew: two
  • Armament:
  • VE-7S: 1 × Vickers 0.30 in (7.62 mm) machine gun synchronize to fire through the propeller

References

  1. Vought VE-7. (2010, December 24). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 01:09, January 16, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Vought_VE-7&oldid=403979659
  2. Vought VE-7 The-Blueprints.com Retrieved from http://www.the-blueprints.com/blueprints/ww1planes/ww1-usa/36133/view/lewis_amp%3B_vought_ve-7_%28usa%29_%281918%29/
  3. Jones, Lloyd S. U.S. Naval Fighters, pp. 11-13. (Fallbrook CA: Aero Publishers, 1977, ISBN 0-8168-9254-7)
  4. Taylor, Michael John Haddrick "Janes Fighting Aircraft of World War I Random House Group Ltd. 20 Vauxhall Bridge Road, London SW1V 2SA, 2001, p 252, ISBN 1-85170-347-0.
  5. Green, William & Swanborough, Gordon (Editors). The Complete Book of Fighters, pp. 336-337. Barnes & Noble Books New York, 1998, ISBN 0760709041.

Standard E-1

Standard E-1 1917
Standard E-1

The Standard E-1 was an early American Army fighter aircraft, tested in 1917. It arrived late in World War I, and as a result saw more use in the months following the Armistice than those preceding it.

Built by the Standard Aircraft Corporation, the E-1 was an open-cockpit single-place tractor biplane, powered by an 80 hp (60 kW) Le Rhône or 100 hp (75 kW) Gnome or rotary engine. It proved unsuitable as a fighter, but 128 were bought as an advanced trainer. Of these, 30 were powered by the Gnone rotary engine of 100 horsepower and 98 were powered by the LeRhone C-9 rotary engine of 80 horsepower. After World War I, three were modified as RPVs.

Standard E-1
  • Role: Military trainer
  • National origin: United States of America
  • Manufacturer: Standard Aircraft Corporation
  • First flight: 1917
  • Primary user: United States Army Air Service
  • Number built: 168
  • Powerplant: 1 × Le Rhône rotary, 80 hp (60 kW)
  • Wingspan: 24 ft 0 in (7.31 m)
  • Length: 18 ft 5 in (5.61 m)
  • Empty weight: 368 lb (811 kg)
  • Gross weight: 1,140 lb (520 kg)
  • Maximum speed: 100 mph (160 km/h)
  • Range: 180 miles (290 km)
  • Service ceiling: 14,500 ft (4,420 m)
  • Crew: One pilot
  • Armament: none

References

  1. Standard E-1. (2010, May 4). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 04:12, July 2, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Standard_E-1&oldid=360038444
  2. Standard E-1 The-Blueprints.com Retrieved from http://www.the-blueprints.com/blueprints/ww1planes/ww1-various/31403/view/standard_e-1/
  3. Taylor, Michael J. H. (1989). Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. London: Studio Editions. pp. 839.
  4. Donald, David, ed. Encyclopedia of World Aircraft, p. 854, "Standard aircraft". Etobicoke, Ontario: Prospero Books, 1997.
  5. United States Air Force Museum. Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio: Air Force Museum Foundation. 1975, p. 11.
  6. aerofiles.com

Thomas-Morse S-4

Thomas-Morse S-4 - 1917
Thomas-Morse S-4

The Thomas-Morse Scout became the favorite single-seat training airplane for U.S. pilots during World War I. The Scout first appeared with an order for 100 S4Bs in the summer of 1917. The U.S. Army Air Service later purchased nearly 500 of a slightly modified version, the S4C. Dubbed the "Tommy" by its pilots, the plane had a long and varied career.

Built by Thomas-Morse Aircraft in Bath, New York in 1917, it was a compact single-seat open-cockpit biplane of equal span and a 100 hp (75 kW) Gnome rotary.

Designed by Englishman Benjamin D. Thomas (no relation), formerly of the Sopwith Aviation Company, the S-4 made her maiden flight in June 1917 in the hands of Paul D. Wilson. Twelve went to the Navy.
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Thomas-Morse S-4C Scout
  • Role: advanced trainer
  • National origin: United States
  • Manufacturer: Thomas-Morse Aircraft
  • Designed by: Benjamin D. Thomas
  • First Flight: June 1917
  • Powerplant: 1 × Le Rhône aircooled rotary, 80 hp (60 kW)
  • Top Wing Span: 26 ft 6 in (8.07 m)
  • Bottom Wing Span: 25 ft 6 in (7.77 m)
  • Top Chord: 5 ft 6 in (1.67 m)
  • Bottom Chord: 4 ft 3 in (1.29 m)
  • Gap Between Wings: 4 ft 6 in (1.37 m)
  • Length: 19 ft 10 in (6.06 m)
  • Height: 8 ft 1 in (2.46 m)
  • Fuel Capacity: 27 gal (102 lt)
  • Empty weight: 961 lb (435 kg)
  • Gross weight: 1,330 lb (605 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 100 mph (160 km/h) @ Sea Level
  • Service ceiling: 15,000 ft (4500 m)
  • Range: 250 miles
  • Crew: 1
  • Armament: One × 0.30-cal Marlin machine gun

References

  1. Thomas-Morse S-4. (2010, August 24). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 09:17, January 15, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Thomas-Morse_S-4&oldid=380768615
  2. Thomas-Morse S-4 The-Blueprints.com Retrieved from http://www.the-blueprints.com/blueprints/ww1planes/ww1-usa/31404/view/thomas-morse_s-4c/
  3. Thomas Morse S4C Scout The Cradle of Aviation Museum Retrieved 09:17, January 15, 2011, from http://www.cradleofaviation.org/exhibits/ww1/scout/index.html
  4. Thomas-Morse S4C Scout National Museum of the USAF Retrieved 09:17, January 15, 2011, from http://www.nationalmuseum.af.mil/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=271
  5. Thomas-Morse Scout - USA The Aviation History On-Line Museum. Retrieved 09:17, January 15, 2011, from http://www.aviation-history.com/thomas/scout.html
  6. Angelucci, Enzo, Great Aeroplanes of the World, London, New York, Sydney, Toronto: Hamlyn, 1973. p. 41
  7. Donald, David, ed. Encyclopedia of World Aircraft, p. 875, "Thomas Brothers and Thomas-Morse aircraft", p875. Etobicoke, Ontario: Prospero Books, 1997.
  8. Holmes, Tony (2005). Jane's Vintage Aircraft Recognition Guide. p 52. London: Harper Collins. ISBN 0 0071 9292 4.
  9. Swanborough, Gordon and Bowers, Peter. United States Navy Aircraft since 1911. London:Putnam, Second edition, 1976, p. 471-472. ISBN 0 370 10054 9.
  10. United States Air Force Museum. Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio: Air Force Museum Foundation. 1975, p. 10.