Airco D.H.4

Airco D.H.4 - 1917
Airco D.H.4

Designed in 1916 by Geoffrey de Havilland, the D.H.4 was the only British design manufactured by the Americans. It was easily identified by its rectangular fuselage and deep frontal radiator. Versatile, heavily armed and equipped with a powerful twelve cylinder engine, this biplane daylight bomber was fast.

Sometimes called the "Flaming Coffin," its huge fuel tank was dangerously positioned between the pilot and observer, hindering communication. Produced in vast numbers, 6295, of which 4846 were built in the United States, many D.H.4s were modified for civilian air service after the war.
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Airco D.H.4
  • Type:Reconaissance/Tactical Bomber
  • Country: Great Britain
  • Manufacturer: Aircraft Manufacturing Co. Ltd.
  • Entered Service: March 1917
  • Number Built: 6,295
  • Engine(s):
    • Rolls-Royce Eagle VII, water cooled 12 cylinder, 375 hp
    • Liberty 12, water cooled 12 cylinder, 395 to 421 hp (USA)
    • Wing Span: 42 ft 4.5 in 12.92 m
  • Length: 30 ft 8 in (9.35 m)
  • Height: 11 ft (3.35 m)
  • Loaded Weight: 3,472 lb (1,575 kg)
  • Speed: 143 mph {230 km/h) sea level
  • Service Ceiling: 23,500 ft (7,163 m)
  • Endurance: 6 hr 45 min
  • Crew: 2
  • Armament:
    • Guns: 2-4 machine guns
    • Bombs: 460 lb (208.7 kg) of bombs

References

  1. From Wikipedia Airco DH.4, "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Airco_DH.4"
  2. Angelucci, Enzo, (editor). "World Encyclopedia of Military Aircraft". London: Jane's, 1991. ISBN 0-7106-0148-4.
  3. Bruce, J.M. "The De Havilland D.H.4." Flight, 17 October 1952, pp. 506-510.
  4. Bowers, Peter M. "Boeing Aircraft since 1916. London: Putnam, Second edition, 1989. ISBN 0-85177-804-6.
  5. Jackson, A.J. British "Civil Aircraft since 1919: Volume 2". London:Putnam, Second edition, 1973. ISBN 0-370-10010-7.
  6. Jackson, A.J. "De Havilland Aircraft since 1909". London: Putnam, Third edition, 1987. ISBN 0-85177-802-X.
  7. Mason, Francis K. "The British Bomber since 1914". London: Putnam Aeronautical Books, 1994. ISBN 0-85177-861-5.
  8. Maurer, Maurer (editor). "The U.S. Air Service in World War I: Volume IV" Postwar Review. Washington, DC: The Office of Air Force History Headquarters USAF, 1979.
  9. Sturtivant, Ray and Gordon Page. "The D.H.4/D.H.9 File". Tunbridge Wells, Kent, UK: Air-Britain (Historians) Ltd., 2000. ISBN 0-85130-274-2.
  10. Swanborough, F.G. and Peter M. Bowers." United States Military Aircraft since 1909". London: Putnam, 1963.
  11. Swanborough Gordon and Peter M. Bowers. "United States Naval Aircraft since 1911". London: Putnam, Second edition, 1976. ISBN 0-370-10054-9.
  12. Thetford, Owen. "British Naval Aircraft since 1912". London: Putnam, Fourth edition, 1978. ISBN 0-370-30021-1.
  13. "United States Air Force Museum. Wright-Patterson AFB", Ohio: Air Force Museum Foundation, 1975.
  14. Williams, George K. "Biplanes and Bombsights: British Bombing in World War I". Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama: Air University Press, 1999. ISBN 1-41020-012-4.

Breguet Br.XIV

Breguet Br.14A2 - 1918
Breguet Br.14A2

Used throughout the war, the innovative Breguet Br.14 was a highly successful biplane used by the French, Belgian and American air services. Designed by Louis Breguet in 1916, it was one of the first aircraft constructed with duralumin in the airframe.

Rugged and versatile, it was mass produced in several variations, including a seaplane model. Before the end of the war, the Br.14 saw service as a reconnaissance aircraft, a day/night bomber and an air ambulance. This was one of the best bombers the French used. It was produced up until 1926.

Breguet Br.14A2
  • Type: Bomber (B2) and Reconnaissance (A2)
  • Country: France
  • Entered Service: Summer of 1917
  • Number Built: About 5,500 during World War I
  • Powerplant: Renault 12 Fox, water cooled 12 cylinder, 300 hp
  • Wing Span: 47 ft 1.25 in (14.36 m)
  • Length: 29 ft (8.87 m)
  • Height: 10 ft 10 in (3.3 m)
  • Loaded Weight: 3,892 lb (1,765 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 110 mph (177 km/h) at 6,560 ft (2,000 m)
  • Service Ceiling: 19,030 ft (5,800 m)
  • Endurance: 2 ¾ hours
  • Crew: 2
  • Armament:
    • Guns: 2-3 machine guns
    • Bombs: 661 lb (300 kg) of bombs

References

  1. Breguet Bre.4. (2011, January 5). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 07:25, January 11, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Breguet_Bre.4&oldid=406067608
  2. Taylor, Michael J. H. (1989). Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. London: Studio Editions. pp. 202.
  3. World Aircraft Information Files. London: Bright Star Publishing. pp. File 890 Sheets 78-79.

Curtiss 18-T Wasp

Curtiss 18-T Wasp - 1918
Curtiss 18-T Wasp

The Curtiss 18T, unofficially known as the Wasp and by the United States Navy as the Kirkham, was an early American triplane fighter aircraft designed by Curtiss Engineering for the US Navy.

The Curtiss 18T was intended to protect bombing squads along the French coast, and a primary requisite for this job was speed. Speed was not the triplane's only salient feature: an 18T-2 set a new altitude record in 1919 of 34,910 ft (10,640 m). The streamlined and very "clean" fuselage contribiuted to the aircraft's performance. The basic construction was based on cross-laminated strips of wood veneer formed on a mold and attached to the inner structure. The technique was a refinement of that used on the big Curtiss flying boats.

Flown by Roland Rholfs, the 18T achieved a world speed record of 163 mph (262 km/h) in August 1918 carrying a full military load of 1,076 lb (488 kg).

The Model 18T-2 was an improved version of its predecessor, boosting 50 additional horsepower. The wings of the new model were swept back. It was also 5 ft (150 cm) longer with a 9 ft (270 cm) longer two-bay wing, though its flight ceiling was 2,000 ft (610 m) lower.

After World War I, it was employed as a racing plane: an 18T-2 nearly won the Curtiss Marine Trophy Race in 1922 (limited to U.S. Navy pilots), but pilot Sandy Sanderson ran out of fuel just before the finish line.

Curtiss Engineering followed the success of the Model 18T with the launch of the Model 18B, unofficially known as the "Hornet", built to otherwise similar specifications.

Curtiss 18-T Wasp
  • Role: two seat fighter triplane
  • Manufacturer: Curtiss Engineering Corporation
  • Designed by: Charles B Kirkham
  • First flight: 7 May 1918
  • Introduction: February 1919
  • Primary user: United States Navy
  • Unit cost: $55,400
  • Variants
  • Model 18T or 18T-1: Two-seat fighter triplane with single-bay wings, powered by a 400-hp (298-kW) Curtiss-Kirkham K-12 piston engine. Referred to by the US Navy as the "Kirkham". Originally designated 18T, the type was redesignated the 18T-1 when the prototype was modified to a new configuration designated 18T-2 (see below).
  • Model 18T-2: 18T with longer-span two-bay wings. Could be fitted with floatplane or landplane landing gear.
  • Model 18B: Biplane fighter version, known unofficially as the "Hornet".
  • Powerplant: 1 × water-cooled 12-cylinder vee engine, 350 hp (261 kW)
  • Propellers: four-blade prop, 1 per engine
  • Wingspan: 31 ft 10 in (9.70 m)
  • Wing area: 288.04 ft² (26.76 m²)
  • Length: 23 ft 4 in (7.11 m)
  • Height: 9 ft 11 in (3.02 m)
  • Empty weight: 1,069 lb (485 kg)
  • Max takeoff weight: 3,049 lb (1,383 kg)
  • Maximum speed: 163 mph (262 km/h)
  • Service ceiling: Approximately 34,908 ft (10,640 m)
  • Crew: 2
  • Armament:
    • Primary: 2 × forward-firing synchronized 0.30 in (7.62 mm) Marlin guns
    • Secondary: 2 × rear-cockpit 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Lewis guns on a Scarff ring

References

  1. Curtiss 18-T Wasp. (2011, January 13). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 04:56, January 16, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Curtiss_18
  2. Curtiss 18-T Wasp.The-Blueprints.com Retrieved from http://www.the-blueprints.com/blueprints/ww1planes/ww1-usa/36092/view/curtiss_18-t_%28usa%29_%281918%29/
  3. Angelucci, Enzo and Peter Bowers. "The American Fighter: The Definitive Guide to American Fighter Aircraft from 1917 to the Present. New York: Orion Books, 1985, pp. 114-115. ISBN 0-517-56588-9.
  4. "The Curtiss Model 18-T Triplane." Flight, Volume XI, Issue 22, No. 544, 29 May 1919, pp. 698-700.
  5. "The Curtiss Model 18-B Biplane." Volume XI, Issue 28, No. 550, 10 July 1919, pp. 902-904.
  6. Green, William and Gordon Swanborough. The Complete Book of Fighters. New York: Salamander, 1994. ISBN 0-8317-3939-8.

Curtiss CB

Curtiss CB - 1918
Curtiss CB

The CB (Curtiss Battleplane), unofficially known as the "Liberty Battler", serial number 34632, was an experimental two-seat fighter developed and flown early in 1918 as a result of difficulties being experienced with the Liberty-engined version of the Bristol F2B.

Powered by a 425hp 12-cylinder Liberty 12 water-cooled engine, the CB two-bay biplane was an early example of "Curtiss ply" construction - two layers of 5cm wide wood veneer being cross-laminated over a form to build up a monocoque fuselage shell. In an effort to maintain fuselage streamlining, the radiators were slung under the upper wing center section, where they were found to have a seriously detrimental effect on the airflow.
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Curtiss CB
  • Role: experimental two-seat fighter
  • National Origin: United States
  • Manufacturer: Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company
  • First Flight: May 1918
  • Number Built: 1
  • Serial Number: 34632
  • User: United States Army
  • Status: Prototype
  • Powerplant: 1 × 12-cylinder Liberty 12, water-cooled engine 425 hp (317 kW)
  • Wingspan: 11.98 m 39 ft 4 in
  • Length: 8.25 m 27 ft 1 in
  • Empty weight: 1622 kg 3576 lb
  • Crew: 2
  • Armament: None

References

  1. Curtiss CB The-Blueprints.com Retrieved from http://www.the-blueprints.com/blueprints/ww1planes/ww1-usa/36094/view/curtiss_cb_%28usa%29_%281918%29/
  2. Curtiss CB - fighter 1918 Virtual Aircraft Museum Retrieved 03:50, January 20, 2011, from http://www.aviastar.org/air/usa/curtiss_cb.php
  3. List of accidents and incidents involving military aircraft (pre-1925). (2011, January 20). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 07:28, January 21, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_accidents_and_incidents_involving_military_aircraft_(pre-1925)&oldid=408958373
  4. Green, William, and Swanborough, Gordon, "Fighter A To Z", Air International, Bromley, Kent, UK, January 1976, Volume 10, Number 1, pages 33-34.

Curtiss HA-2

Curtiss Model HA-2 - 1918
Curtiss HA-2

The Curtiss HA (sometimes Dunkirk Fighter) was an American biplane seaplane designed by Captain B.L. Smith of the United States Marine Corps, and built by Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company.

The HA was a two-seat biplane with a central float and balancing floats on the wingtips. The fuselage was wood with a fabric covering. The plane was powered by a Liberty 12 engine in the nose. The prototype was ordered in December 1917, and its first flight was on 21 March 1918. During testing the aircraft proved very unstable, with an overly heavy tailplane. The aircraft was destroyed in a crash.
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Curtiss HA-2 (BuNo A4111)
  • Role: fighter/mail plane
  • National Origin: United States
  • Manufacturer: Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company
  • Designed By: B.L. Smith
  • First Flight: 21 March 1918
  • Number Built: 6 (3 prototypes, 3 landplane mail planes)
  • Powerplant: 1 × Liberty 12, 360 hp ( kW)
  • Wingspan: 42 ft 0 in (12.80 m)
  • Wing Area: 490 ft² (45.52 m²)
  • Length: 30 ft 9 in (9.37 m)
  • Height: 11 ft 5 in (3.47 m)
  • Empty Weight: 2,946 lb (1,336 kg)
  • Gross Weight: 3,907 lb (1,772 kg)
  • Maximum speed: 118 mph (190 km/h)
  • Rate of Climb: 790 ft/min (4 m/s)
  • Crew: 2
  • Armament: 4 × 0.30 in (7.62 mm) machine guns

References

  1. Curtiss HA. (2010, August 20). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 03:54, January 16, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Curtiss_HA&oldid=380018984
  2. Curtiss HA. The-Blueprints.com Retrieved from http://www.the-blueprints.com/blueprints/ww1planes/ww1-usa/36095/view/curtiss_ha-2_%28usa%29_%281918%29/
  3. Angelucci, Enzo (1987). The American Fighter from 1917 to the present pp 116-117. New York: Orion Books.

Loening M-8

Loening M-8 - 1918
Loening M-8

The Leoning M-8 was a 1910s American fighter monoplane designed by Grover Loening and built by his Loening Aeronautical Engineering Company. An order of 5000 for the United States Army Air Corps was canceled when the First World War ended.

The first design by Grover Loening after he had formed his company was a two-seat braced-wing monoplane fighter the M-8. It had a fixed tailskid landing gear and was powered by a nose-mounted Hispano-Suiza engine with a tractor propeller. The pilot and gunner had tandem open cockpits.

The first aircraft was flown in 1918 and after testing the United States Army Air Corps ordered 5000 aircraft to be built. Only two aircraft were delivered to the Army and one to the United States Navy with the designation M-8-0.

At the end of the war the order was canceled. The Navy ordered 46 aircraft in two variants for use as observation aircraft. The Navy also ordered six M-8-S twin-float seaplane versions. A single-seat version was developed for the Army as the Loening PW-2.

Loening M-8-0
  • Role: Monoplane fighter
  • Manufacturer: Loening Aeronautical Engineering
  • National Origin: United States
  • Designed by: Grover Loening
  • First flight: 1918
  • Primary users:
    • United States Navy
    • United States Army Air Corps
  • Number built: 55
    • Variants:
    • M-8 Production variant for the United States Army Air Corps, two prototypes, 5000 cancelled.
    • M-8-0 One M-8 for evaluation by the United States Navy.
    • M-8-0 Production version for the United States Navy, 10 built.
    • M-8-1 Second production variant for the United States Navy, 36 built by the Naval Aircraft Factory.
    • M-8-S Seaplane variant for the United States Navy, six built.
  • Powerplant: 1 × Hispano-Suiza V-8 engine, 300 hp (224 kW)
  • Wingspan: 35 ft 0 in (10.67 m)
  • Length: 21 ft 6 in (6.55 m)
  • Gross weight: 2068 lb (938 kg)
  • Maximum speed: 145 mph (233 km/h)
  • Crew: 2
  • Armament: Twin 0.3in (7.62mm) Lewis machine guns

References

  1. Loening M-8. (2011, January 17). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 07:16, January 18, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Loening_M-8&oldid=408358502
  2. Taylor, Michael J. H. (1989). Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. London: Studio Editions.
  3. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft (Part Work 1982-1985). Orbis Publishing. pp. 2376.

Nieuport 28

Nieuport 28 - 1918
Nieuport 28

Rejected by the French and British air services, the Nieuport 28 was the first biplane fighter received in large numbers by squadrons of the United States Air Service. A favorite with aces like Harold Hartney, it was fast and maneuverable but had a tendency to shed its upper wing fabric if its pilot pulled out of a steep dive too quickly. The Nieuport 28 was replaced by the less maneuverable SPAD S.XIII.
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Nieuport 28
  • Type: Fighter
  • Manufacturer: Société Anonyme des Establissements Nieuport
  • First Introduced: 1917
  • Powerplant: Gnome Monosoupape 9N, 9 cylinder rotary, 160 hp (120 kW)
  • Wing Span: 26 ft 9 in 8.15 m
  • Length: 21 ft 6.40 m
  • Height: 8 ft 1.75 in 2.5 m
  • Loaded Weight: 1,627 lb 737 kg
  • Maximum Speed: 122 mph 196 km/h
  • Service Ceiling: 16,995 ft 5,180 m
  • Endurance: 1.5 hours
  • Crew: 1
  • Armament: 2 × 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Vickers machine gun

References

  1. From Wikipedia Nieuport 28, "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nieuport_28"
  2. Cheesman E.F. (ed.) "Fighter Aircraft of the 1914-1918 War". Letchworth, UK: Harleyford Publications, 1960, p. 94, pp. 98-99, p. 106.
  3. Cooksley, Peter. "Nieuport Fighters in Action" (Aircraft No. 167). Carrollton, Texas: Squadron/Signal Publications, 1997. ISBN 0-89747-377-9.
  4. Dorr, Robert F. and David Donald. "Fighters of the United States Air Force". London: Aerospace Publishing, 1990. ISBN 0-60055-094-X.
  5. Treadwell, Terry C. "America's First Air War". London: Airlife Publishing, 2000, pp. 16-17. ISBN 1-84037-113-7.

Packard-Le Peré LUSAC-11

Packard-Le Peré LUSAC-11 - 1918
Packard-Le Peré LUSAC-11

The LUSAC-11 (Le Peré United States Army Combat) was an early American Army two-seat fighter aircraft. It was designed during World War I and ordered in large numbers, but the contract was cancelled at the end of the war, and only 30 were built. The type was used for experimental purposes, setting several altitude records during the 1920s.

When the U.S. entered World War I, the Signal Corps had just 55 aircraft, none fit for combat. The American Expeditionary Force was equipped with French types, and the LUSAC was part of a plan to build French designs in the U.S.

Georges Le Peré, a member of the French Aeronautical Mission to the United States, was tasked by the Engineering Division of the United States Army Air Service to design a two-seat escort fighter. His design was a two-bay biplane with upper and lower wings of equal span with forward stagger. It was of wood and fabric construction, with the fuselage consisting of a wooden box girder with plywood covering. It was powered by a 425 hp (317 kW) Liberty L-12 engine cooled by a radiator faired into the upper wing. Armament was two .30 inch (7.62 mm) machine guns synchronized to fire through the propeller, with two Lewis guns flexibly mounted on a Scarff ring at the observer's cockpit.
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Packard-Le Peré LUSAC-11
  • Role: Fighter aircraft
  • National origin: United States of America
  • Manufacturer: Engineering Division/Packard
  • Designed by: Georges Lepère
  • First flight: 15 May 1918
  • Primary user: United States Army Air Service
  • Number built: 30
  • Developed into: Waterman 3-L-400
  • Powerplant: 1 × Liberty L-12 liquid-cooled V12 engine, 425 hp (317 kW)
  • Wingspan: 41 ft 7 in (12.67 m)
  • Wing area: 415.6 ft² (68.60 m²)
  • Length: 25 ft 3 in (7.69 m)
  • Height: 10 ft 7 in (3.22 m)
  • Empty weight: 2,561 lb (1,162 kg)
  • Loaded weight: 3,745 lb (1,669 kg)
  • Maximum speed: 133 mph (116 knots, 214 km/h) at sea level
  • Cruise speed: 118 mph
  • Range: 320 mi (278 nmi, 515 km)
  • Service ceiling: 20,200 ft (6,157 m)
  • Climb to 6,500 ft (1,980 m): 6 min
  • Crew: 2 (pilot and observer/gunner)
  • Armament:
  • Guns:
  • Pilot: 2 × 0.30 in (7.62mm) Marlin machine guns on the upper fuselage
  • Observer: 2 × 0.30 in (7.62mm) Lewis guns in the observer's cockpit

References

  1. "Packard-Le Peré LUSAC-11". (2010, December 12). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 23:54, January 15, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Packard-Le_Per%C3%A9_LUSAC-11&oldid=401930379
  2. "Factsheets: Packard-Le Peré LUSAC 11". National Museum of the US Air Force. Retrieved 5 December 2010 from http://www.nationalmuseum.af.mil/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=325
  3. "The Royal Aero Club of the U.K.: Official Notices to Members". Flight 16 December 1920. Retrieved 23:57, January 15, 2011, http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1920/1920%20-%200265.html
  4. Packard-Le Peré LUSAC-11 The-Blueprints.com Retrieved from http://www.the-blueprints.com/blueprints/ww1planes/ww1-usa/31365/view/le_pere_lusac_11/
  5. Angelucci, Enzo and Peter M. Bowers. The American Fighter. Sparkford, UK: Haynes Publishing Group, 1987, p. 195. ISBN 0-85429-635-2.
  6. "Eighteen Years of World's Records". Flight, 7 February 1924, pp. 73-75.
  7. Fitzsimons, Bernard, ed. "LUSAC-11, Packard-Le Peré". Illustrated Encyclopedia of 20th Century Weapons and Warfare. Volume 16, p.1782-3. London: Phoebus, 1978.
  8. Owers, Colin."Stop-Gap Fighter:The LUSAC Series". Air Enthusiast, Fifty, May to July 1993. pp. 49-51. Stamford, UK:Key Publishing. ISSN 0143-5450.

Salmson 2

Salmson 2a
Salmson 2

The Salmson 2 was a French biplane reconnaissance aircraft made by Salmson. It was developed to a 1916 requirement. Along with the Breguet 14, it was the main reconnaissance aircraft in use with the French army in 1918. At the end of the First World War, one-third of French reconnaissance aircraft were Salmson 2s.

Built in large numbers, the Salmson 2 was the most widely used reconnaissance aircraft in the final year of the war. A versatile two-seater biplane featuring a new Canton-Unné radial engine, it was also employed as a daylight bomber and ground attack aircraft by French and American air services.

Salmson 2
  • Country: France
  • Manufacturer: Société des Moteurs Salmson
  • Type: Reconnaissance
  • Entered Service: 1918
  • Number Built: 3,200
  • Powerplant: Canton-Unné, 9 cylinder, radial, 260 hp (194 kW)
  • Wing Span: 38 ft 8.5 in 11.8 m
  • Length: 27 ft 10.75 in 8.5 m
  • Height: 9 ft 6.25 in 2.9 m
  • Empty Weight: 1,676 lbs 760 kg
  • Loaded Weight: 2,954 lb 1,340 kg
  • Maximum Speed: 115 mph 185 km/h
  • Service Ceiling: 20,505 ft 6,250 m
  • Endurance: 3 hours
  • Crew: 2
  • Armament: 2-3 machine guns

References

  1. From Wikipedia Salmson 2, "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salmson_2"
  2. Davilla, James J., & Soltan, Arthur M., "French Aircraft of the First World War". Stratford, Connecticut: Flying Machines Press, 1997. ISBN 0-9637110-4-0

SPAD S XIII

SPAD S-XIII - 1918
SPAD S-XIII

Equipped with twin machine guns and a larger engine, the SPAD S.XIII was based upon the smaller SPAD S.VII. Built in large numbers, it was fast and powerful but difficult to fly. The SPAD S.XIII was flown by many of the famous aces including Georges Guynemer, Rene Fonck, and also by Italian ace Francesco Baracca. Aces of the United States Army Air Service who flew the Spad XIII include and Eddie Rickenbacker, (America's leading ace with 26 confirmed victories) and Frank Luke (18 victories). Irish ace William Cochran-Patrick scored more victories with the SPAD S.VII and SPAD S.XIII than any other ace.
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SPAD S XIII
  • Type: Fighter
  • Manufacturer: Société Pour L'Aviation et ses Dérivés
  • Designed By: Louis Béchereau
  • First Introduced: September 1917
  • Number Built: 8,472
  • Powerplant: Hispano-Suiza 8 BEc, water cooled V-8, 235 hp
  • Wing Span: 26 ft 11 in
  • Length: 20 ft 8 in
  • Height: 7 ft 11 in
  • Loaded Weight: 1,801 lb
  • Maximum Speed: 138 mph at 6,560 ft
  • Service Ceiling: 21,820 ft
  • Endurance: 2 hours
  • Crew: 1
  • Armament: 2 × 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Vickers machine guns

References

  1. From Wikipedia SPAD S-XIII, "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SPAD_S.XIII"
  2. Sharpe, Michael (2000). "Biplanes, Triplanes, and Seaplanes". London: Friedman/Fairfax Books, p 272. ISBN 1-58663-300-7.
  3. Bruce, J.M. (1982). "The Aeroplanes of the Royal Flying Corps" (Military Wing). London: Putnam, pp. 561-564. ISBN 0 370 30084 x.
  4. Winchester, Jim (2006). "Fighter - The World's Finest Combat Aircraft - 1913 to the Present Day". Barnes & Noble Publishing, Inc. and Parragon Publishing, p.18, p. 23. ISBN 0-7607-7957-0.