Although the SPAD S.VII was disadvantaged by poor forward and downward visibility from the cockpit, it was fast, durable and difficult to shoot down. It was flown by several Italian units although many Italian pilots preferred the more maneuverable Hanriot H-D.I..
The Anatra D, DS, and DSS were almost identical. Most of the differences between the aircraft were in the powerplant. Radiators were installed on the sides of the Plywood covered fuselage or under the nose section. The Anatra-DS was first flown on July 25, 1916, the "Anasal" entered mass production in 1917. There were 60 to 70 of these planes built, and in service during 1917.
The Aviatik D.I, was the first wholly Austro-Hungarian designed fighter. The D.I was reasonably fast, had excellent flying characteristics and maneuverability, and could reach higher altitudes than most of its adversaries. In addition, it was provided with a roomy and comfortable cockpit which gave a good field of view.
The Albatros D.III was a biplane fighter aircraft used in small numbers by Turkey during the Great War. Following on the successful Albatros D.I and D.II series, the D.III utilized the same semi-monocoque, plywood-skinned fuselage. The aircraft suffered from structural problems common in sesquiplane wing aircraft.
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War On The Eastern Front
None of the European nations were prepared for the outbreak of war. The nations pulled into war on the Eastern Front were even less prepared. Entangling treaties, political and diplomatic ineptitude and nationalistic pride all came together to bring death on a scale never imagined before.
While the aerial fighting on the Eastern Front was not as intense or on as large a scale as it was over the Western Front, it was equally as deadly. The flights of aircraft used by each side were smaller, primarily because they had fewer aircraft with which to operate.
The Austro-Hungarian Empire faced off against the forces of Romania, Russia, Italy, and British Expeditionary forces sent to bolster the Italian Front. Their level of technology and ability to manufacture on a large scale hampered their early efforts.
Turkey was drawn into the war after Britain confiscated war ships which had been ordered and paid for. The German Empire induced them to join their cause with an offer of ships, aircraft, and the expertise to operate and maintain them. The Turkish forces had to rely on second hand aircraft from Germany and captured aircraft.
Italy was the major Force standing against the Central Powers, Armed with a mix of French, British and Home built designs They fought on until the end of the war. Italy developed some of the most effective bombers used during the Great War.
The Russian Empire was allied with Britain and were forced to fight a war which they could ill afford. The conflict weakened the rule of the Czar and precipitated the Bolshevik Revolution which forced Russia into an early truce. Russian aircraft development suffered during the civil war. Records of that period are difficult to find. Britain was horrified at the prospect of arms provided to the Russian Imperial forces would fall into the hands of the Red army destroyed many aircraft still on the docks waiting to be made operational.