In a flying boat, the main source of buoyancy is the fuselage, which acts like a ship's hull in the water. Most flying boats have small floats mounted on their wings to keep them stable. All large seaplanes have been flying boats, their great weight supported on their hull.

British Flying Boats 1916

AD Flying Boat

Air Department Flying Boat - 1916
Air Department Flying Boat - 1916

The AD Flying Boat was designed by the British Admiralty's Air Department to serve as a patrol aircraft that could operate in conjunction with Royal Navy warships. Intended for use during World War I, production of the aircraft was terminated as the end of the war came into sight, and the type saw little operational use. A number were re-purchased after the end of the War by Supermarine Aviation and rebuilt as civil Transports, becoming known as the Supermarine Channel.

Designed in 1915 by Lieutenant Linton Hope, the aircraft was of conventional biplane flying-boat configuration, and also featured a biplane tail with twin rudders. The pilot and observer sat in tandem in the nose, with the engine and pusher propeller mounted behind them, between the wings. The wings could be folded forwards to facilitate shipboard stowage.
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Air Department Flying Boat
  • Type: Flying boat
  • Manufacturer: Pemberton-Billing Ltd.
  • Designed by: Linton Hope
  • First Flight: 1916
  • Primary User: Royal Naval Air Service
  • Number Built: 27
  • Powerplant: 1× Hispano-Suiza inline engine, 200 hp (149 kW)
  • Wingspan: 50 ft 4 in (15.34 m)
  • Wing Area: 479 ft² (44.5 m²)
  • Length: 30 ft 7 in (9.32 m)
  • Height: 13 ft 1 in (3.98 m)
  • Empty Weight: 2,508 lb (1,140 kg)
  • Loaded Weight: 3,567 lb (1,6121 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 100 mph (87 knots, 161 km/h) at 2,000 ft (610 m)
  • Service Ceiling: 11,000 ft (3,355 m)
  • Endurance: 4½ hours
  • Climb to 10,000 ft (3,050 m): 30 minutes
  • Crew: two, pilot and observer
  • Armament: 1 × 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Lewis gun on flexible mount for observer

References

  1. From Wikipedia Air Department Flying Boat, "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AD_Flying_Boat"
  2. Andrews, C.F. and E.B. Morgan. Supermarine Aircraft since 1914. London:Putnam, 1987. ISBN 0 85177 800 3.
  3. Bruce, J.M. British Aeroplanes 1914-18. London:Putnam, 1957.
  4. London, Peter. British Flying Boats. Stroud, UK:Sutton Publishing, 2003. ISBN 0-7509-2695-3.
  5. Nerdrum, Johan. Fugl fønix: En beretning om Det Norske Luftfartselskap. Oslo:Gyldendal Norsk Forlag, 1986. ISBN 82-05-16663-3. (in Norwegian)

British Flying Boats 1917

Curtiss Model H

Curtiss Model H-12
Curtiss Model H-12 - 1917

The Curtiss Model H was a family of classes of early long-range flying boats, the first two of which were developed directly on commission in the United States in response to the £10,000 prize challenge issued in 1913 by the London newspaper, the Daily Mail, for the first non-stop aerial crossing of the Atlantic. As the first aircraft having trans-Atlantic range and cargo-carrying capacity, it became the grandfather development leading to early international commercial air travel, and by extension, to the modern world of commercial aviation. The last widely produced class, the Model H-12, was retrospectively designated Model 6 by Curtiss' company in the 1930s, and various classes have variants with suffixed letters indicating differences.

Having transatlantic range and cargo carrying capacity by design, the first H-2 class (soon dubbed "The Americans" by the Royal Navy) was quickly drafted into wartime use as a patrol and rescue aircraft by the RNAS, the air arm of the British Royal Navy. The original two "contest" aircraft were in fact temporarily seized by the Royal Navy, which later paid for them and placed an initial follow-on order for an additional 12 — all 14 of which were militarized (e.g. by adding gun mounts) and designated the "H-4" (the two originals were thereafter the "H-2" Models to air historians). These changes were produced under contract from Curtiss' factory in the last order of 50 "H-4s", giving a class total of 64, before the evolution of a succession of larger, more adaptable, and more robust H-class models. This article covers the whole line of nearly 500 Curtiss Model H seaplane flying boat aircraft known to have been produced, since successive models - by whatever sub-model designation - were physically similar, handled similarly, essentially just being increased in size and fitted with larger and improved engines — the advances in internal combustion engine technology in the 1910s being as rapid and explosive as any technological advance has ever been.
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Curtiss Model H-12A
  • Role: Experimental flying boat
  • Manufacturer: Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company
  • First flight: June 1914
  • Introduction: 1917
  • Retired: 1918
  • Primary users:
    • United States Navy
    • Royal Naval Air Service
  • Number built: 478
  • Developed from: Curtiss Model E
  • Variants:
    • Felixstowe F.1
    • Felixstowe F.2
  • Powerplant: 2 × Rolls-Royce Eagle I, 275 hp (205 kW) each
  • Wingspan: 92.71 ft in (28.26 m)
  • Wing area: 1,216 ft² (113.0 m²)
  • Length: 46.5 ft in (14.18 m)
  • Height: 16.5 ft in (5.03 m)
  • Empty weight: 7,293 lb (3,609 kg)
  • Gross weight: 10,650 lb (5,550 kg)
  • Maximum speed: 85 mph (137 km/h)
  • Endurance: 6 hours
  • Service ceiling: 10,800 ft (3,292 m)
  • Rate of climb: 336 ft/min (1.7 m/s)
  • Crew: Four
  • Armament:
  • Guns: 4 × .303 in (7.7 mm) Lewis guns on flexible mounts
  • Bombs: 4 × 100 lb (45 kg) or 2 × 230 lb (105 kg) bombs below the wings

References

  1. Curtiss Model H. (2010, August 29). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 22:05, October 31, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Curtiss_Model_H&oldid=381703213
  2. RCAF.com: The Aircraft: Curtiss H.12 http://rcaf.com/aircraft/patrol/h12/index.php?name=H.12
  3. Curtiss H.12 http://www.worldwar1.com/dbc/curth12.htm
  4. Curtiss H-4 America http://www.airforce.forces.gc.ca/site/equip/historical/americalst_e.asp
  5. Reproduction Curtiss H-1 America Flies-September 2008 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b_1Z_wxA2CY
  6. Roseberry, C.R. "Glenn Curtiss: Pioneer of Flight". Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Company, 1972. ISBN 0-81560-264-2.
  7. Shulman, Seth. "Unlocking the Sky: Glen Hammond Curtiss and the Race to Invent the Airplane". New York: Harper Collins, 2002. ISBN 0-06-019633-5.
  8. Swanborough, Gordon and Peter M. Bowers. "United States Navy Aircraft since 1911", Second edition. London: Putnam, 1976, pp. 106–107. ISBN 0-370-10054-9.
  9. Taylor, Michael J.H. "Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation". London: Studio Editions, 1989, p. 281. ISBN 0-71060-710-5.
  10. Thetford, Owen. "British Naval Aircraft since 1912", Fourth edition. London: Putnam, 1978, pp. 80–83. ISBN 0-370-30021-1.
  11. "World Aircraft Information Files: File 891", Sheet 44–45. London: Bright Star Publishing, 2002.

Felixstowe F.2

Felixstowe F.2 -1917
Felixstowe F.2 -1917

The Felixstowe F.2 was a 1917 British flying boat class designed and developed by Lieutenant Commander John Cyril Porte of the Royal Navy at the Seaplane Experimental Station, Felixstowe during the First World War adapting a larger version of his superior Felixstowe F.1 hull design married with the larger Curtiss H12 flying boat. The Felixstowe hull had superior water contacting attributes and became a key base technology in most seaplane designs thereafter.

.The Felixstowe F.2A was widely used as a patrol aircraft over the North Sea until the end of the war. Its excellent performance and maneuverability made it an effective and popular type, often fighting enemy patrol and fighter aircraft, as well as hunting U-boats and Zeppelins. The larger F.3, which was less popular with its crews than the more maneuverable F.2a, served in the Mediterranean as well as the North Sea.

Variants:

Felixstowe F.2a
  • Type : Military flying boat
  • Designed by: John Cyril Porte
  • Manufacturers:
    • S.E.Saunders Ltd
    • Aircraft Manufacturing Co Ltd
    • May, Harden& May
  • First flight: February 1917
  • Entered Service: 1917
  • Primary Users:
    • Royal Naval Air Service
    • Royal Air Force
    • United States Navy
  • Number Built: 175
  • Length: 46 ft 3 in (14.1 m)
  • Wingspan: 95 ft 7½ in (29.15 m)
  • Height: 17 ft 6 in (5.34 m)
  • Wing Area: 1,133 ft² (105.3 m²)
  • Empty Weight: 7,549 lb (3,431 kg)
  • Loaded Weight: 10,978 lb (4,990 kg)
  • Powerplant: 2× Rolls-Royce Eagle VIII V12 piston, 345 hp (257 kW) each
  • Maximum speed: 95½ mph at 2,000 ft (83 knots, 154 km/h)
  • Service ceiling: 9,600 ft (2,930 m)
  • Wing loading: 9.69 lb/ft² (47.4 kg/m²)
  • Power/mass: 0.063 hp/lb (0.10 kW/kg)
  • Endurance: 6 hours
  • Climb to: 2,000 ft (610 m) 3 min 50 s.
  • Climb to: 10,000 ft (3,050 m) 39 min 30
  • Crew: 4
  • Armament:
    • Guns: 4 × .303 in (7.7 mm) Lewis Guns, 1 in nose, 3 amidships
    • Bombs: Up to 460 lbs of bombs beneath wings

References

  1. From Wikipedia Felixstowe F.2 "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Felixstowe_F.2"
  2. Bruce, J.M. "The Felixstowe Flying-Boats: Historic Military Aircraft No. 11 Part 1". Flight, 2 December 1955. pp.842-846.
  3. Bruce, J.M. "The Felixstowe Flying-Boats: Historic Military Aircraft No. 11 Part 2". Flight, 16 December 1955. pp.895-898.
  4. Bruce, J.M. "The Felixstowe Flying-Boats:> Historic Military Aircraft No. 11 Part 3". Flight, 23 December 1955. pp.929-932.
  5. Bruce, J.M. British Aeroplanes 1914-18. London:Putnam, 1957.
  6. Hallam, T.D. The Spider Web:The Romance of a Flying Boat War Flight. London: William Blackwood, 1919.
  7. London, Peter. British Flying Boats. Stroud, UK:Sutton Publishing, 2003. ISBN 0-7509-2695-3.
  8. Thetford, Owen. British Naval Aircraft since 1912. London:Putnam, Fourth edition, 1978. ISBN 0370 30021 1.

Felixstowe F.3

Felixstowe F.3 N4258
Felixstowe F.3 N4258 - 1917
Rendered by Bob Pearson.

The Felixstowe F.3 was a British First World War flying boat designed by Lieutenant Commander John Cyril Porte RN of the Seaplane Experimental Station, Felixstowe the successor to the Felixstowe F.2

Based at Felixstowe NAS in the Autumn of 1918. The painting of the Felixstowes was entirely an affair of the summer and autumn 1918.

Felixstowe F.3 was painted with dazzle schemes, not as an attempt at camouflage, but the exact opposite - to make them recognizable at a glance in the air and to be able to see a downed boat at sea.
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Felixstowe F.3
  • Type: Biplane Flying Boat
  • Manufacturers:
    • Short Brothers
    • Dick, Kerr & Co.
    • Phoenix Dynamo Manufacturing Company
    • Malta Dockyard
  • Entered Service: 1917
  • Number built: 182
  • Wingspan: 102 ft (31.10 m)
  • Length: 49 ft 2 in (14.99 m)
  • Height: 18 ft 8 in (5.69 m)
  • Empty Weight: 7,958 lb (3,167 kg)
  • Loaded Weight: 12,235 lb (5,561 kg)
  • Engines: 2× Rolls-Royce Eagle VIII V12 inline piston, 345 hp (257 kW) each
  • Maximum Speed: 91 mph (79 knots, 147 km/h) at 2,000 ft (610 m)
  • Service Ceiling: 8,000 ft (2,440 m)
  • Endurance: 6 hours
  • Crew: 4
  • Armament
    • Guns: 4 × Lewis guns (1 in nose, 3 amidships)
    • Bombs: Up to 920 lb (418 kg) of bombs beneath wings

References

  1. From Wikipedia Felixstowe F.3, "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Felixstowe_F.3"
  2. Bruce, J.M. "The Felixstowe Flying-Boats: Historic Military Aircraft No. 11 Part 1". Flight, 2 December 1955. pp.842-846.
  3. Bruce, J.M. "The Felixstowe Flying-Boats: Historic Military Aircraft No. 11 Part 2". Flight, 16 December 1955. pp.895-898.
  4. Bruce, J.M. "The Felixstowe Flying-Boats: Historic Military Aircraft No. 11 Part 3". Flight, 23 December 1955. pp.929-932.
  5. Thetford, Owen. British Naval Aircraft since 1912. London:Putnam, Fourth edition, 1978. ISBN 0370 30021 1.

British Flying Boats 1918

Felixstowe F.5

Felixstowe F.5 - 1918
Felixstowe F.5 - 1918

The Felixstowe F.5 was a British First World War flying boat designed by Lieutenant Commander John Cyril Porte RN of the Seaplane Experimental Station, Felixstowe.

Porte had designed a better hull for the larger Curtiss H12 flying boat, giving the Felixstowe F.2a, which was greatly superior to the original Curtiss boat. This entered production and service as a patrol aircraft. In February 1917, the first prototype of the Felixstowe F3 was flown. This was larger and heavier than the F2, giving it greater range and heavier bomb load, but poorer agility. The Felixstowe F5 was intended to combine the good qualities of the F2 and F3, with the prototype first flying in May 1918. The prototype showed superior qualities to its predecessors but the production version was modified to make extensive use of components from the F.3, in order to ease production, giving lower performance than either the F.2a or F.3.

The F5 did not enter service until after the end of World War I, but replaced the earlier Felixstowe boats (together with Curtiss flying boats) to serve as the RAF's standard flying boat until being replaced by the Supermarine Southampton in 1925.

In 1920. the Canadian Air Board sponsored a project to conduct the first ever Trans-Canada flight. The leg from Rivière du Loup to Winnipeg was flown by Lt.Col. Leckie and Maj. Hobbs in a Felixstowe F.3 to determine the feasibility of such flights for future air mail and passenger service.

Variants

  • Felixstowe F5L: US built version with two Liberty engines.
  • Naval Aircraft Factory (USA): 137
  • Curtiss Aviation (USA): 60
  • Canadian Aeroplanes Limited (Canada): 30
Felixstowe F.5
  • Role: Military flying boat
  • Manufacturer:
    • Seaplane Experimental Station (1)
    • Short Brothers (23)
    • Dick, Kerr & Co. (2)
    • Phoenix Dynamo Manufacturing Company (17)
    • Gosport Aviation (10)
  • Designed by: J C Porte
  • First flight: May 1918
  • Introduced: 1917
  • Primary users:
    • United Kingdom: Royal Air Force, Royal Naval Air Service
    • United States: United States Navy
    • Japan - (Post-war): Imperial Japanese Navy 60 licence built by the Hiro Naval Arsenal.
  • Number built: 53 (F.5); 227 (F5L)
  • Developed from: Felixstowe F.2
  • Variants:
    • Felixstowe F5L
    • Hiro H1H
  • Powerplant: 2 × Rolls-Royce Eagle VIII V12 inline piston, 345 hp (257 kW) each
  • Wingspan: 103 ft 8 in (31.6 m)
  • Wing area: 1,409 ft² (131 m²)
  • Length: 49 ft 3 in (15 m)
  • Height: 18 ft 9 in (5.7 m)
  • Empty weight: 9,100 lb (4,136 kg)
  • Loaded weight: 12,682 lb (5,765kg)
  • Maximum speed: 76 knots (88 mph, 142 km/h) at 2,000 ft (610 m)
  • Service ceiling: 6,800 ft (2,070 m)
  • Rate of climb: 30 min to 6,500 ft (1,980 m)
  • Endurance: 7 hours
  • Crew: 4
  • Armament:
  • Guns: 4 × Lewis guns (1 in nose, 3 amidships)
  • Bombs: Up to 920 lb (418 kg) of bombs beneath wings

References

  1. "The Felixstowe F.5" Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Felixstowe_F.5
  2. Bruce, J.M. "The Felixstowe Flying-Boats: Historic Military Aircraft No. 11 Part 1". Flight, 2 December 1955. pp.842846.
  3. Bruce, J.M. "The Felixstowe Flying-Boats: Historic Military Aircraft No. 11 Part 2". Flight, 16 December 1955. pp.895-898.
  4. Bruce, J.M. "The Felixstowe Flying-Boats: Historic Military Aircraft No. 11 Part 3". Flight, 23 December 1955. pp.929-932.
  5. Donald, David and Jon Lake, eds. "Encyclopedia of World Military Aircraft". London: AIRtime Publishing, 1996. ISBN 1-880588-24-2.
  6. Taylor, Michael J.H., ed. "Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation". London: Studio Editions, Ltd., 1989. ISBN 0-51710-316-8.
  7. Thetford, Owen. "Aircraft of the Royal Air Force since 1918". London: Putnam & Co., 1979. ISBN 0-37030-186-2.