Morane-Saulnier BB

Morane-Saulnier BB -1915
Morane-Saulnier BB

The Morane-Saulnier BB was a military observation aircraft produced in France during World War I for use by Britain's Royal Flying Corps. It was a conventional single-bay biplane design with seating for the pilot and observer in tandem, open cockpits. The original order called for 150 aircraft powered by 110-hp Le Rhône engines, but shortages meant that most of the 94 aircraft eventually built were delivered with the 80 hp Le Rhônes instead. A water-cooled Hispano-Suiza engine was trialled as an alternative in the Type BH, but this remained experimental only.

The type equipped a number of RFC and RNAS squadrons both in its original observation role and, equipped with a forward-firing Lewis gun mounted on the top wing, as a fighter.

Morane-Saulnier Type BB, Type BH
  • Role: Observation aircraft
  • National Origin: France
  • Manufacturer: Morane-Saulnier
  • First Flight: 1915
  • Primary User: Royal Flying Corps
  • Number Built: 94
  • Operators:
    • United Kingdom: Royal Flying Corps, Royal Naval Air Service
    • Russian Empire: Imperial Russian Air Service
  • Powerplant: 1 × Le Rhône, 110 hp (82 kW)
  • Wingspan: 28 ft 5 in (8.65 m)
  • Wing Area: 247 ft² (23.0 m²)
  • Length: 23 ft 0 in (7.00 m)
  • Height: 8 ft 4 in (2.54 m)
  • Loaded Weight: 1,650 lb (750 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 92 mph (147 km/h)
  • Service Ceiling: 13,000 ft (4,000 m)
  • Crew: Two, pilot and observer
  • Armament:
    • Pilot: 1 × forward-firing Lewis gun 0.303 in (7.7 mm) mounted on the top wing
    • Observer: 1 × trainable, rearward-firing 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Lewis gun for observer

References

  1. Morane-Saulnier BB. (2010, March 13). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 11:53, July 31, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Morane-Saulnier_BB&oldid=349698249
  2. Parmentier, Bruno. "Morane-Saulnier BB". Aviafrance - Un siècle d'aviation française. http://www.aviafrance.com/1387.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-07.
  3. "The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft"". London: Aerospace Publishing.
  4. Bruce, J.M. (1982). "The Aeroplanes of the Royal Flying Corps (Military Wing). London: Putnam. ISBN 0 370 30084 x.
  5. Taylor, Michael J. H. (1989). "Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation". London: Studio Editions.

Morane-Saulnier AR / MS.35

Morane Saulnier MS.35 - 1915
Morane Saulnier MS.35 - 1915

First flown in 1915, the AR was a two-seat parasol-wing monoplane constructed largely of wood with fabric covering. About 400 were built after World War I (when it was known as the MS.35), mainly as intermediate trainers in three principal versions: MS.35R with a 59.6kW Le Rhone 9c rotary engine; MS.35A with an Anzani engine; and MS.35C with a Clerget 9B engine. The MS.35EP2 served with French Aeronautique Militaire 'Ecoles de Pilotage' up to 1929. Other military users were Poland (60), Argentina, Belgium, Brazil, Guatemala, Romania, Soviet Union (30) and Turkey. A number also went to civil users.

Morane-Saulnier AR / MS.35
  • Role: Two-seat Parasol Monoplane Trainer
  • Manufacturer: Aéroplanes Morane-Saulnier
  • First Flight: 1915
  • Retired: 1929
  • Number Built: over 500
  • Primary Operater: French Aeronautique Militaire "Ecoles de Pilotage"
  • Powerplants:
    • MS.35A: 1 × Anzani 10, air-cooled 10 cylinder radial engine 90 - 100 hp (75 kW)
    • MS.35C: 1 × Clerget 9B, air cooled 9 cylinder rotary, 130 hp (97 kW)
    • MS.35R: 1 × Le Rhône 9C, air cooled 9 cylinder rotary, 80 hp (60 kW)
  • Wingspan: 35 ft 9 in (10.6 m)
  • Wing Area:193.75 ft³ (18.0 m²)
  • Length: 22 ft 4 in (6.8 m)
  • Height: 12 ft 10 in (3.6 m)
  • Take-off Weight:1543 lb (700 kg)
  • Empty Weight: 992 lb (450 kg)
  • Max. Speed: 84 mph (135 km/h)
  • Cruise Speed: 75 mph (120 km/h)
  • Ceiling: 15100 ft (4600 m)
  • Crew: 2
  • Armament: None

References

  1. Morane-Saulnier AR / MS.35 1915 Virtual Aircraft Museum Retrieved 05:20, October 21, 2011, from http://www.aviastar.org/air/france/morane_ms-35.php

Nieuport 12

Nieuport 12
Nieuport 12

The Nieuport 12 was a French biplane fighter aircraft used by both Great Britain and France during World War I. To improve the performance of the Nieuport 10 a larger and re-engined version was developed as the Nieuport 12. A 0.303 in (7.7 mm) drum-fed Lewis machine gun was fitted to the rear cockpit for use of the observer and the pilot sometimes had a 0.303 in (7.7 mm) drum-fed Lewis machine gun fixed to the upper wing firing over the propeller. Late examples of the type, used by the Royal Flying Corps were sometimes fitted with a Nieuport or Scarff ring mounting for the observer's gun, and a synchronized fixed-forward firing 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Vickers machine gun for the pilot.

It could be fitted with either a 100 hp (82 kW) or 130 hp (97 kW) Clerget engine mounted in the nose.

Variants

Nieuport 12 A.2 prototype
  • Type: Fighter/Reconnaisance
  • Country: France
  • First Introduced: 1915
  • Manufacturer: Societe Anonyme des Etablissements Nieuport
  • Designed by: Gustave Delage
  • Primary Users:
    • France: Aéronautique Militaire
    • Russian Empire: Imperial Russian Air Service
    • United Kingdom: Royal Flying Corps, Royal Naval Air Service
  • Developed from: Nieuport 10
  • Powerplant: 1 × Clerget 9B, 9 cylinder, air cooled rotary engine, 110 hp (82 kW)
  • Wingspan: 29 ft 7.5 in (9.03 m)
  • Wing Area: 237 ft² (22.0 m²)
  • Length: 23 ft 6 in (7.3 m)
  • Height: 8 ft 11 in (2.67 m)
  • Loaded Weight: 2,028 lb (920 kg)
  • Maximum Speed: 98 mph (155 km/h) at sea level
  • Endurance: 2.75 hours
  • Service Ceiling: 15,420 ft (4,700 m)
  • Crew: 2 (pilot, observer)
  • Armament:
    • Gun Pilot: 1 × 0.303 in (7.7 mm) drum-fed Lewis machine gun braced to upper wing
    • Gun Observer: 1 × 0.303 in (7.7 mm) drum-fed Lewis machine gun in rear cockpit

References

  1. Nieuport 12. (2009, November 11). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 10:04, July 23, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Nieuport_12&oldid=325199574
  2. "The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft" (Part Work 1982-1985). Orbis Publishing. pp. 2597.
  3. Bruce, J.M. (1982). "The Aeroplanes of the Royal Flying Corps" (Military Wing). London: Putnam, p.320, p.323-324. ISBN 0 370 30084 x.
  4. Green, W; Swanborough, G (1994). "The Complete Book of Fighters". Smithmark, p.431. ISBN 0-8317-3939-8.
  5. Thetford, Owen (1978). "British Naval Aircraft since 1912" (Fourth Edition ed.). London: Putnam, p.263. ISBN 0 85177 861 5.

SPAD A2

SPAD A-II 1915

One of the more outlandish attempts to design an aircraft with forward firing capabilities. The gunner/observer sat in a small cabin that was attached in front of the prop of the engine. There were many problems with this design, ranging from lack of communication between crew members, to a safety issue for the observer. Many of these planes were exported to Russia.

SPAD A2
  • Type: Fighter Reconaisence
  • Manufacturer: Société Pour L'Aviation et ses Dérivés
  • First Introduced: 1915
  • Powerplant: Le Rhône 9C, air cooled 9 cylinder rotary, 80 hp (60 kW)
  • Wingspan: 9.55 m
  • Length: 7.29 m
  • Empty Weight: 535 kg
  • Loaded Weight: 815 kg
  • Max. speed: 112 km/h
  • Service Ceiling: 3000 m
  • Crew: 2
  • Armament: 1× 0.303 in (7.7 mm) drum-fed Lewis gun

References

  1. From Wikipedia SPAD A.2, "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SPAD_A.2"
  2. Bordes, Gérard (1981). Mach 1, "Encyclopédie de l'Aviation", Vol. 8. Editions Atlas.
  3. Connors, John F. (1989). "SPAD Fighters in action". Squadron/Signal. ISBN 0-89747-217-9.